به نام خدا. دكتر محمد امامي فوق تخصص ريه عضو هيات علمي دانشگاه. VTE. CLINICAL PRESENTATIONS OF DVT. swelling pain erythema warmth Homan's sign (calf pain with flexion of the knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle) Moses’ sign (pain with calf compression against the tibia)
Signs with Angiographically Proven PE
Tachypnea > 20/min 92
Accentuated S2 53
Tachycardia >100/min 44
Fever > 37.8 43
S3 or S4 gallop 34
Lower extremity edema 24
Acute coronary syndrome
Active cancer (patient receiving treatment for cancer within the previous 6 mo or currently receiving palliative treatment)
the diagnosis of PE cannot be confirmed or excluded solely on clinical grounds.
For the quantitative assays, a level >500 ng/mL is usually considered abnormal
The d-dimer is less sensitive for DVT than for PE because the DVT thrombus size is smaller.
hospitalized patients are more likely to have an elevated D-dimer level than outpatients.
a normal d-dimer result can safely exclude embolism in patients with a low clinical probability of disease.