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Selecting Employees. Ahmed El-Dessouki Ayman Sheirah Basel Abdel Aziz Enas Fawzi George Moheb. July 2010. Agenda. 1. Introduction. 2. The Selection Process. 3. Elements for Successful Predictors. Introduction. Making selection determinations is often difficult

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selecting employees

Selecting Employees

Ahmed El-Dessouki

Ayman Sheirah

Basel Abdel Aziz

EnasFawzi

George Moheb

July 2010

agenda
Agenda

1

Introduction

2

The Selection Process

3

Elements for Successful Predictors

introduction
Introduction
  • Making selection determinations is often difficult
    • Required technicalities + personal attributes
  • Selection activities exist for making effective selection decisions
  • Predict which job applicants will be successful job performers
  • Mistakes in selection can have serious consequences for corporate effectiveness
    • Affect colleagues, subordinates and clients
    • loss and waste of valuable resources
the selection process
The Selection Process

initial screening

The selection process typically consists of eight steps.

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

initial screening
Initial Screening

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

initial screening1
Initial Screening

Screening Inquiries

Screening Interviews

  • Eliminate applicants based on
  • Not meeting general job requirements
  • - Job specification
  • Appropriate experience
  • Required education
  • Phone Interviews
  • Help candidates decide if position is suitable
  • Sharing job information along with a salary range
  • Encourage unqualified to withdraw

Two-step procedure

completed application form
Completed Application Form

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

completed application form1
Completed Application Form

Application Form

  • Gives a job-performance-related synopsis of what applicants have been doing, their skills and accomplishments
  • Applications obtain information the company wants and needs in order to make a proper selection

Form

completed application form2
Completed Application Form

Legal Considerations

  • Omit items which are not job-related; e.g., sex, religion, age, and color
  • Includes statement giving employer the right to dismiss an employee for falsifying information
  • Asks for permission to check work references
  • Typically includes “employment-at-will” statement

Form

completed application form3
Completed Application Form

Successful Applications

  • Information collected on application forms can be highly predictive of successful job performance
  • Forms must be validated and continuously reviewed and updated
  • Data should be verified through background investigations

Form

pre employment testing
Pre-employment Testing

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

pre employment testing1
Pre-employment Testing

Performance Simulation Tests

Work Sampling

Assessment Centers

  • Requires the applicant to engage in specific job behaviors necessary for doing the job successfully
  • Develop a small replica of the job on which an applicant demonstrates his/her skills
  • A series of tests and exercises, including individual and group tests, to assess managerial potential or other complex sets of skills

60% of organizations use some type of employment tests

Predict who will be successful on the job

Results in better quality hires

comprehensive interviews
Comprehensive Interviews

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

comprehensive interviews1
Comprehensive Interviews
  • Assess candidate motivation, values, ability to work under pressure, attitude, and ability to “fit in” within the organization culture.
  • Interview can be
    • Traditional, Panel, or Situational

Panel Interview

“Hire for Attitude, Train for skill”

Southwest Airlines and Four Seasons resorts

Personal Interview

interview issues
Interview Issues
  • Interview Effectiveness
  • Interviewer Bias
  • Impression Management
  • Short and inaccurate memory

The interview is only as effective as those conducting it.

interview issues1
Interview Issues
  • Interview Effectiveness
  • Interviewer Bias
  • Impression Management
  • Short and inaccurate memory

Seeing the candidate resume, application form, test scores, or appraisals form from other interviews may introduce interviewer bias

interview issues2
Interview Issues
  • Interview Effectiveness
  • Interviewer Bias
  • Impression Management
  • Short and inaccurate memory

Applicant attempt to project an image that will result in a favorable outcome

interview issues3
Interview Issues
  • Interview Effectiveness
  • Interviewer Bias
  • Impression Management
  • Short and inaccurate memory
  • Interviewers have short and inaccurate memories: note-taking and videotaping may help
steps for effective interviewing
Steps for Effective Interviewing

Review the job description and job qualification

Prepare for interview

Review the applicant form and resume before meeting a candidate

Open the interview by putting the candidate at ease

Ask your questions and listen carefully

Take a few notes

Close the interview

Write your evaluation

behavioral interview
Behavioral Interview
  • How the candidate fit the identified dimensions or competencies of the positions?
    • Situational Interview
    • Role playing
  • Eight times more effective in predicting successful job performance
realistic job offers
Realistic Job Offers
  • Unmet expectation of new employees can cause them to be dissatisfied in the job and quit
    • Realistic job previews (brochures, videos, plant tours, work sampling) help reduce turnover rates
    • Favorable and unfavorable information about the job are shared
conditional job offer
Conditional Job Offer

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

background investigation
Background Investigation

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

background investigation1
Background Investigation
  • Intended to verify that information on the application form is correct and accurate
  • Common sources include
    • References
    • Former employers
    • Educational accomplishments
    • Legal status to work
    • Credit references if job related
    • Criminal records
    • Background checks
    • Online Searches
background investigation2
Background Investigation
  • Why do this?
    • Many – in some studies nearly half – of applicants exaggerate their backgrounds
    • Negligent hiring liability
    • Failure to investigate applicants can be costly
  • Qualified privilege
    • “ The ability for organizations to speak to one another about employees or potential hires”
medical physical examination
Medical/Physical Examination

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

medical physical examination1
Medical/Physical Examination

A selection device to screen out individuals who are unable to physically comply with the requirements of a job

Individual does not meet the minimum standards of health required to enroll in company health and life insurance programs

Base data in case of an employee’s future claim of injury on the job

Company must show that any required medical clearance is job-related

job offers
Job Offers

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

job offers1
Job Offers

Official employment offer

Typically made by an HRM representative

Actual hiring decision should be made by the department manager where the vacancy exists

the selection process discrete
The Selection Process (Discrete)

initial screening

Failed to meet minimum qualifications

Passed

completed application

Failed to complete application or

failed job specifications

Passed

employment test

Failed test

Passed

conditional

job offer

comprehensive interview

Passed

Failed to impress interviewer and/or

meet job expectations

background examination

if required

Problems encountered

Passed

permanent

job offer

medical/physical examination

(conditional job offer made)

reject applicant

Unfit to do essential

elements of job

Able to perform essential elements of the job

the comprehensive approach
The Comprehensive Approach

PROS

CONS

  • Overcomes the major disadvantage of the discrete selection method
  • More realistic
  • More costly
  • Consumes more of management time

All applicants complete every step of the selection process

Final decision is based on a comprehensive evaluation of the results from all stages

now it s up to the candidate
Now It’s Up to the Candidate

Job choice from the perspective of the potential employee rather than the organization

People gravitate toward jobs compatible with their personal orientation

Individual’s perception of the company’s attractiveness is important

What about those applicants to whom we did not make an offer?

reliability
Reliability
  • When a Measurement Procedure yields consistent scores when the phenomenon being measured is not changing.
  • Degree to which scores are free of “measurement error” Example IQ test.
  • Consistency of measurement
    • Time
    • Participants
validity
VALIDITY
  • Measures the gap between what a test actually measures and what it is intended to measure.
  • If math and vocabulary truly represent intelligence then a math and vocabulary test might be said to have high validity when used as a measure of intelligence.
types of validity
Types of Validity
  • 1. Content Validity
  • 2. Criterion-Related Validity
    • Concurrent Validity
    • Predictive Validity
  • 3. Construct Validity
content validity
Content validity
  • Also called “sampling validity”
  • establishes that the measure covers the full range of the concept’s meaning, i.e., covers all dimensions of a concept
  • Such as a typing test for a clerk typist.
criterion related validity
Criterion-related Validity
  • The degree to which a particular selection device accurately predicts the important elements of work behavior, as in the relationship between a test score and job performance. “ Speed & Quality”.
  • Includes
    • Concurrent
    • Predictive
concurrent validity
Concurrent Validity
  • Measured by comparing two tests done at the same time, for example a “written test and a Practical test” that seek to assess the same criterion.
  • Does the new instrument correlate highly with an old measure of the same concept that we assume (judge) to be valid?
  • (use of “good” judgment)
predictive validity
Predictive Validity
  • In contrast, compares success in the test with actual success in the future job. The test is then adjusted over time to improve its validity.
slide41

Predictive

Hire based on criteria other than test results

Evaluate performance one year after beginning work

Analyze test scores and performance evaluations for significant relationship: does it exist?

Give test to all applicants, record score and file

Yes

No

Develop a battery of tests

Set and implement valid cut scores

Analyze test scores and performance evaluations for significant relationship: does it exist?

Give test to all current employees

Yes

No

Concurrent

construct validity
Construct validity
  • This is the most comprehensive type of validity we discuss, because you are dealing with abstract measures.
  • Validating tests by using current employees as the study group.
hiring standards and cut scores
Hiring Standards and Cut Scores
  • Issue -- What is a passing score?
    • Score may be a
      • Single score from a single predictor or
      • Total score from multiple predictors
  • Description of process
    • Cut score - Separates applicants who advance from those who are rejected
validity generalization
Validity Generalization

Refers to test valid for screening applicants for a variety of Jobs & Performance factors across many occupations.

GATB: General Aptitude Test Battery.

selection from a global perspective
Selection from a Global Perspective

The individual must have an interest in working overseas and a talent for relating will to all types of people & different cultures.

excelling at the interviewing
Excelling at the Interviewing
  • The interview is the most frequently used selection method.
  • Interviewing occurs when applicants respond to questions posed by a manager or some other organizational representative (interviewer).
  • Typical areas in which questions are posed include education, experience, knowledge of job procedures, mental ability, personality, communication ability, social skills

.

types of interviews
Types of Interviews
  • Structured Interviews - uses a list of predetermined questions. All applicants are asked the same set questions. There are two types of structured interviews.
    • Situational interview, in which the interviewer asks questions about what the applicant would do in a hypothetical situation
    • Behavioral interview, in which the questions focus on the applicant’s behavior in past situations.
types of interviews continued
Types of Interviews-continued
  • Unstructured Interviews-open ended questions are used such as “Tell me about yourself”.
  • This allows the interviewer to probe and pose different sets of questions to different applicants.