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PERFUMES. Olfactory organ. The odor detecting sense organ of the nose is known as the olfactory organ, and in the human this takes the form of two, richly innervated membranes each of about 2.5 sq. cm. in area.
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Olfactory organ • The odor detecting sense organ of the nose is known as the olfactory organ, and in the human this takes the form of two, richly innervated membranes each of about 2.5 sq. cm. in area. • These small thin delicate structures lie on either side of the nasal septum, just below eye level, and are thus situated deep within the nasal cavity, well protected from the possibility of mechanical damage by the bony casing of the rigid part of the nose
Olfactory organ • Histologically, these membranes are highly specialized and localized region of mucous epithelium by which the nasal cavity is overlain and unlike other mucous area of the nose , and colored by the presence of yellowish brown pigment.
Olfactory organ • To reach an olfactory filament a molecule must first diffuse from the incoming air stream of the nose to the olfactory organ, where it encounters the moisture film by which the organ is covered. • The molecule must first survive the bombardment by evaporating water and this only happens if the molecule at least has small extent water solubility, then penetrate the much denser wall of mucus.
Origin of perfume • Historical perspective: - The burning of incense for the purpose of religious worship and domestically for the enjoyment of its fragrance is today wide spread almost around the world. In India and Asia the manufacture of incense is one of the oldest industries have origin in dating to 1500 b.c. or even earlier.
The world perfume - The derivation of the world “perfume” came from the Latin expression per -fumum or per fumare meaning "through smoke" in reference to burring of incense for its fragrance and religious symbolism.
Odor classification: • Odor Families - An odor family may be defined as a class of odors the members of which are related to one another by having certain features and frequently applications, in common.E.g. odors of the floral family are those of living fragrant flowers and not those of aromatic materials derived from, or related in odor to fragrant flowers.
Odor Families • Floral family: Odors of flowers, which can be used as fragrance elements of perfumes. E.g. Jasmine, Gardenia, Lilac, Orange flowers, Narcissus, Rose. • Woody family: the most important woody notes are those recalling so-called “precious wood”, these are woods valued for their visual and in some cases textural, beauty and in perfumery for the odors of their essential oils. E.g. Cedar woods the odor of typical East Africa. , Or Virginian cedar wood oil: woody and slightly earthy. - Rose wood, Sandalwood: the odor of East India. Sandal wood is soft, sweet, woody, and slightly balsamic
Odor Families • Animalic family: The family of aromatic notes traditional to perfumery encompasses the odor of aromatic extracts of animal origin, e.g. civet and musk. Usage in perfumery of natural musk is confined to fine fragrance, but even there, it is of extremely rare occurrence as a perfume ingredient. - The musk trade has clearly declined over the past 50 years as a result of the depletion of the Musk deer population. It seems amazing that anyone would want to go around and smell of cats, yet some fragrances do carry this note and its presence is evidently highly appreciated.
Odor Families • Lather: the lather fragrance is not truly animalic in the sense of being natural animal smell because the skin and hides used in the making of lather has suffered the effects of chemical treatment during the curing and tanning process necessary to confer upon them the qualities demanded of natural leather. • Balsamic family: Notes described as balsamic are typified by vanilla, vanillin, and vanilla smelling products such as benzoin and balsam of Peru, which like vanilla, contain vanillin. - The flavors of custard powder and vanilla ice cream owe most of its odor to vanillin not vanilla. The odor of true vanilla may be readily experienced by allowing a drop of genuine Vanilla flavoring essence to evaporate from the back of the hand.
Odor Families • Herbaceous family: Typical of the perfumer’s concept of herbaceous note is the odor characteristic of sage. E.g. Lavender, Rosemary.- Rosemary: The odor of rosemary oil is different from the odor of truly natural essential oil, produced by rubbing the leaves of the rosemary plant which is much more mellow. • Mint family: mintiness of odor is strongly associated with spearmint and peppermint, although in the case of the matter the minty character in overlaid with the fresh and cooling odor of levo-menthol. . EG peppermint, spearmint. • Green family: Cress, watercress, cucumber, grassy, leafy. • Fruity family: e.g. apple, apricot, banana, peach, pineapple, and strawberry.
Odor Families • Coniferous family: Pine, resinous. • Marine family: Amber, beach, costal ozonic, seaweed • Spicy family: Celery, cinnamon. The odor of the dried inner bark of Ceylon cinnamon is readily available in the form of powder.- Clove: the true smell of clove is appreciated by cushioning a clove or two with pestle and mortar. Or by pressing a clove with thumbnail. - Cumin, ginger, nutmeg, pepper.
The perfumery mix: • 1) Functionality:What is the function of the fragrance of a product? Either to cover up a negative message likes poor base odor in soap, or to counteract a malodor such as that in dishwashing products.Is it to provide some lingering presence or vanish completely after use? For example no odor is required at last stage of dishwashing cycle, however for skin substantive toilet soap a good residual odor maybe essential. • 2) Strength & impact: What impact is required of fragrance? A very strong high impact perfume is essential for freshening the air of a large room.
The perfumery mix: • 3) Substantively:In case of soap perfume the desire maybe to leave a very little odor on skin but in another product the wish maybe to have a pronounced skin substantive note.With hair and fabric care products the issue of fiber substantively and daily-long residual odor maybe of critical importance to product’s “in-use” performance message. • 4) Delivery and physical form:The product could take the form of aerosol or pump spray.
Things To Be Taken In CONSIDERATION • Quality assurance:New products need quality assurance in order to make sure they comply with the corresponding standards, and to avoid complications of adulteration.Quality assurance and the detection of adulteration need great skills. This requires good instrumentation such as capillary gas chromatography and possibly with a coupled mass spectrometer.Also good manufacturing practice (GMP) in storage, production and finishing area is important.Further, to assure that cross-contamination does not take place in compounding.Also stock rotation (to use the old material first).
Quality assurance • Thermal Stability:- Destruction of perfume molecules is proportionally related to increase in temperature.- Accelerated storage test, where a perfumed product is subjected to temperature far higher than it will be ever called upon to suffer under normal conditions. Within short time perhaps of only 2-3 weeks can be extrapolated, as a measure of the stability of the product and its fragrance over the much longer period of its shelf life, in the much cooler environment of its storage and use.- Heat is frequently used during manufacture but the temperature must be closely controlled to maximize the efficiency of the process without causing decomposition of the product.
Photosensitivity: - Sunlight and to a lesser extent the ordinary forms of artificial light, are in general harmful to aromatic materials, and perfumed products of all kinds, which must therefore be protected from light at all times. • Deodorants and Antiperspirants:Perfumes for these product categories need to be completely free from any possibility of irritant or sensitizing activity towards the skin, while imparting fresh and cleanly fragrance at levels sufficiently modest not to interfere with any personal perfume being used at the same time.
Products in which perfume serves a functional purpose: • A- PERSONAL FRAGRANCES: Most fragrances for personal use are presented as dilutions of perfume compounds in suitable solvents, as dispersions in specially formulated creams, or stick form.
The ideal solvent for use in liquid products should have the following attributes: - Good solvent for all aromatic materials within a temperature range of –10 to +40., Colorless, preferably mobile, liquid, Odorless, Non-flammable, Suitably high volatility, In all respects non-toxic and safe to useNon-reactive with perfume ingredientsLifting agent for top notesResistant to atmospheric oxidationThermally stable in sunlightNon-staining Miscible with water in all proportionsNon-foaming in water, on shakingReadily available at low costGood skin feel (not too oily, not too dry)Environmentally acceptable
No known solvent fulfils all of these requirements, those solvents which are in use representing acceptable compromise between theoretical ideals and practical feasibility. • Solvents - Alcohol:Denatured alcohol of high quality and 96% or 100% nominal ethanol content is, currently, still the solvent of choice for most personal fragrances, having the disadvantages only of flammability, toxicity if abused and moderate drying effect upon the skin. - Ethanol is reactive with fragrance materials such as aldehydes and many esters but since such interactions are well known and lead to formation of products of acceptable odor they do not give rise to problems. - The presence of ethanol in a perfume product may be objectionable to persons of Islamic faith.
The two most popular personal fragrance are extrait, and toilet waters. • Extrait perfumes:These are known to consumers simply as “perfumes”, and are the strongest of alcoholic perfumes containing, usually, from 15% to 30% of perfume compound dissolved in perfumery grade alcohol, the remainder being water. Very small but effective proportions of an anti-oxidant and a sunscreen are usually incorporated to extraits to retard the inevitable, eventual deterioration of the perfume. • Toilet waters:The strength of a toilet water is lower, with respect to both perfume compound and alcohol, than that of an extrait perfume.
The following table shows the normal concentrations of perfume compound and alcohol strength:
Men’s fragrances are usually eau de toilette strength.As alcohol exerts a drying effect upon the skin through its solvent action on skin’s natural moisturizers and so do toilet waters. There are two ingredients to counteract this dehydrating effect: emollients, such as light, non-volatile oils to retard water loss from the skin, and humectants, such as glycerin and propylene glycol. • Delivery systems for alcoholic fragrances include pump sprays and pressurized packs, or aerosols. All products in aerosol form must now be environmentally harmless by containing no cfcs propellant.
A- PERSONAL FRAGRANCES: • Volatile silicones as perfume solvents:Though atoms of the element silicon do not possess chain- and ring- forming properties like those of carbon, molecular structures formed by silicon and oxygen. in certain arrangements. give rise to a family of useful products the “silicones”. Among which include solvents, oils, fat-like, waxy and rubbery materials, water-repellents, anti-foaming agents and surfactants. • Of liquid silicones, very few are volatile, and most of these are odorless, with low flammability, freedom of toxicity and resistance to deterioration. They are, however, of extremely low polarity. There is another problem with volatile silicones, which is that they exert no “lifting” action upon the top notes of perfumes.On the credit side, the skin feel of silicones is excellent.
A- PERSONAL FRAGRANCES: • Masculine fragrances:Most fragrances for men take the form of splash colognes and other bathtime preparations, after- or pre-shave lotions and anti-perspirants and deodorants. • Cream perfumes:Personal fragrances in the form of cream are almost always emulsions of the oil-in-water type which are applied to the skin by means of an applicator integral with the cap of the container. • Oily perfumes:Oily perfumes are simple solutions of perfume compound in a suitable fixed oil which is resistant to degradation, a good solvent for perfume oil and not too greasy.
Products in which perfume serves a functional purpose: • B- Air fresheners and space fragrances: The so-called “burning oils” are usually oily perfumes intended for evaporation from small troughs placed on a hot surface.Perfumed candles emit fragrance by heating the pool of molten wax beneath the flame, and here thermostability of the perfume should be ensured.
Air fresheners and space fragrances: • Gel type air fresheners may be used on water, or on a suitable solvent. • A convenient form of “instant effect” air freshener is the aerosol-type product which should, ideally, kill malodors and leave the air fresh and fragrant immediately after use.