Chapter 9 The Métis Rise Up
Focus Questions • What was the importance of Louis Riel? • Who’s perspectives on Canada's past should be considered? • What were some positive & negative consequences of the political decisions made during this period? • Should Louis Riel have an exhibit in the new Human Rights museum?
The Red River Resistance • In October of 1869, the people of Red River resisted the plan for the Hudson Bay Company, Britain & Canada to transfer their region to Canada without consulting them. • In April of 1869, Canada paid the Hudson's Bay Company and the British government the equivalent of $ 1.5 million dollars for control of Rupert's Land. • People living in Rupert's Land were not consulted about the arrangement. • The Métis wanted a say in their future, Canada did not want this.
French & English speaking Métis About half of the population was French speaking Métis. Canadiens HBC employees Scottish & Irish colonists Who Were the People who Lived in Red River?
What Triggered the Red River Resistance? • 1869 crops had failed, buffalo were declining, & Canada was making plans for Rupert’s Land as if nobody else lived there • July 1869 surveyors were dividing up the land going through farms as if they were not even there. • This was done 4 months BEFORE the agreement was even completed
What Triggered the Red River Resistance? • October 1869 Louis Riel would not let the surveyors onto his cousin’s farm • William McDougall was appointed lieutenant –governor of the territory. • Métis set up a blockade & stopped him • The Métis then took control of Ft. Garry • December 1869 the Métis declared a provisional government • Louis Riel was chosen as their leader
Louis Riel • Louis Riel was born at St. Boniface in the Red River Settlement. • His Mother was Canadien & his Father was Métis. • When Riel was 14 he went to college in Montreal. He was a good student. • In 1868, Riel returned to Red River.
Louis Riel • In the transfer of Rupert's Land from the HBC to Canada, Riel saw that Red River could be recognized as a province. • This would give the people of Red River the same rights as other Canadian provinces. • In December 1869, the Métis formed a provisional government in Red River. • In February 1870, the French and English communities elected 20 representatives each to the provisional government, then elected Riel as president.
Louis Riel • Riel had a good physique • Was a great worker • Was a large man
In February 1870, when the Métis took over Fort Garry they arrested some British settlers. In March 1870 the Métis executed one of the settlers, Thomas Scott. Riel could have spared his life but he chose not to do so. Thomas Scott
The Government of Canada and the Provisional government of Red River finally negotiated the Manitoba Act. This brought the settlement of Red River into Confederation as an officially bilingual province: the province of Manitoba. The Manitoba Act
The act was a compromise between the Canadian government and the people of Red River. The Manitoba Act
The Manitoba Act • The people of Red River got an elected government protecting the French language and Catholic religion. • This established Canada as a bilingual country. • First Nations also wanted recognition of their rights to the land. • Many Canadians from Ontario wanted freedom to move west and to start farming. • Canada’s Prime minister, Sir John A MacDonald, wanted to build a railway connecting Canada to British Columbia.
Some Métis from Red River moved to South Branch communities (North of Saskatoon). Here they farmed, trapped and hunted Buffalo, which was disappearing. Canada now controlled the west. Métis at South Branch
Métis at South Branch • In 1873, Canada established the North West Mounted Police. • Surveyors began to arrive, and Métis wanted recognition. • Land speculators also arrived, and began to mark out where the BC Railway would go. They ignored the people that were already living there. • The Métis, Blackfoot & Cree people sent many petitions, but the government continued to ignore them.
In 1884, Gabriel Dumont went to seek the help of Louis Riel. Riel was living in Montana, where he had become a school teacher and started a family. Although Riel was living elsewhere, he began to help the Métis. Gabriel Dumont
Buffalo had almost disappeared Epidemics of smallpox & other diseases killed many The railway was coming through the land Riel suggested that First Nations, Métis & Whites all work together Riel thought that he could make another deal with the Canadian government like he did in Red River Métis leaders formed an army to fight the Canadian troops that were rumored to be coming Chiefs Pitikwahanapiwiyin & Mistahimaskwa led groups & took over a trading post & a town &, 9 people were killed Louis Riel Returns
As it turned out the Canadian government was not sending any troops to South Branch. However, when the railway was built by Batoche, 600 soldiers arrived. The Battle of Batoche lasted 3 days & over 100 died. Riel, Pitikwahanapiwiyin & Mistahimaskwa surrendered Riel was tried for treason but executed for killing Thomas Scott. After these uprisings the Canadian government made natives have a pass before they could leave the reserve. How Did Canada Respond?
The rights in the Manitoba School Act that protected French language & culture didn’t last The original act has separate schools for Catholic & Protestant people both with government funding In 1890 the government of Manitoba abolished Catholic (separate) Schools & made English the only official language Manitoba School Act
When the Manitoba Act was negotiated more than half of the people in this region were Catholic & spoke French. 1890 less than 15% of the population was Catholic & spoke French. This demographic change happened because the Canadian government got Protestant, English speaking immigrants to settle in the west. Demographic Change
The defeat of the Métis at the Battle of Batoche in 1885 triggered a new migration west Métis left South Branch & moved into what is now Alberta Métis Move West Again
James Brady was the grandson of Laurence Garneau who supported Riel during the Red River rebellion & the second Métis uprising. James grew up hearing about the Métis fight for their rights. Brady was born at St. Paul. In 1896 father Albert Lacombe founded this settlement to help Métis become farmers. In 1910 the settlement was closed because the government said it was not working. Brady & his family left St. Paul but Brady lobbied the Alberta government & now Alberta is the only province where Métis have claim to the land. James Brady
Review questions • Why did the Red River resistance in 1869 & the second Métis uprising in 1885 take place? • Why do people have different perspectives on Louis Riel? • How did the Manitoba Act differ from the Manitoba School Act?