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Collaborative Environments For Today’s Multi-Company Teams. Exploring the Challenges and Solutions. Eric Honour INCOSE Past President. Topics. Multi-Company Teams Driving factors Intra-Team Communications Psychology of dispersed teams Communications needs Characteristics and urgency

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collaborative environments for today s multi company teams

Collaborative EnvironmentsFor Today’s Multi-Company Teams

Exploring the Challenges and Solutions

Eric Honour

INCOSE Past President

topics
Topics
  • Multi-Company Teams
    • Driving factors
  • Intra-Team Communications
    • Psychology of dispersed teams
    • Communications needs
    • Characteristics and urgency
  • Collaborative Tools
    • Five classes of collaboration tools
    • Examples and references
multi company teams

Multi-Company Teams

Why Are They So Prevalent?

driving factors
Driving Factors
  • Specialization
  • Reduced Development Time
  • System Failures
  • Growing System Complexity
  • Market Pressures

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

COMPANY

PROJECTS

PRIME/

SUBS

PROJECT

TEAMS

DOMAIN

TEAMS

example automotive

CUSTOMER

MODEL

MANUFACTURING

DIVISION

MODEL

SALES

DIVISION

MID-SIZE AUTO

DESIGN DIVISION

BRAKE SYSTEMS

SUPPLIER

ELECTRIC

SYSTEMS

SUPPLIER

ENGINE CONTROL

SUPPLIER

ENVIRONMENT

CONTROL

SUPPLIER

TIRES

SUPPLIER

Example - Automotive
  • Domain “team of teams”
  • Conflicting goals
  • Conflicting cultures
team communications

Team Communications

How Can A Dispersed “Team of Teams” Work?

developing a team

PERFORMING

ADJOURNING

STORMING

NORMING

FORMING

Developing a Team
  • Well-known psychology
    • Basic process described for over 40 years
  • Team culture always happens
    • Beliefs, Expectations, Shared Values
    • Heros and Heroines, Myths and Stories
    • Rituals and Ceremonies
  • Creating a culture of collaboration
    • Explicitly reward collaboration traits
      • Honesty, integrity, sharing, receptivity, consistency, respect
    • Build trust
      • Individual involvement in planning, creating, strategizing, structuring
psychology of dispersed teams
Psychology of Dispersed Teams
  • Special difficulties
    • Conflicting goals, conflicting cultures
    • Constant divergence
  • Cohesiveness
    • Extent to which team members like and trust one another
    • Improves productivity, decision quality, member satisfaction, member interaction, safety.
  • Improve cohesion
  • Goal agreement
  • Frequent interaction
  • Homogeneity
  • Stability
  • Isolation
  • Outside pressure
  • Status
  • Intergroup competition
  • Decrease cohesion
  • Disagreement
  • Large size
  • Unpleasant experiences
  • Intragroup competition
  • Domination
boundary management in technical teams
Boundary Management in Technical Teams
  • Recent study of 45 high-tech new product development teams
  • Significant portion of time is spent at team boundaries
  • Individual Time Spent
  • Outside Team 14%*
    • * Typically limited to few individuals
  • Within Team 38%
  • Alone 48%
boundary management in technical teams1

CREATION

DEVELOPMENT

DIFFUSION

Boundary Management in Technical Teams
  • Recent study of 45 high-tech new product development teams
  • Significant portion of time is spent at team boundaries
  • Specific boundary roles exist, that change with phase
  • Ambassador
    • Buffering, building support, reporting, strategy
  • Task Coordinator
    • Lateral group coordination, info transfer, planning, negotiating
  • Scout
    • Obtain possibilities from outside - interface with marketing
  • Guard
    • Withhold information, prevent disclosure
boundary management in technical teams2
Boundary Management in Technical Teams
  • Recent study of 45 high-tech new product development teams
  • Significant portion of time is spent at team boundaries
  • Specific boundary roles exist, that change with phase
  • High-performing teams did more external interaction than low-performing teams
  • Internal team dynamics (goals, processes, individual satisfaction) did not correlate with performance
communications needs

Downward

  • Customer to supplier
  • Directing
  • Gaining buy-in

BUSINESS

MANAGER

TEAM

A

TEAM

B

TEAM

C

  • Upward
  • Supplier to customer
  • Reporting
  • Gaining support
  • Lateral
  • Equal to equal
  • Coordination
  • Information
  • Task completion
Communications Needs
  • Communications directions
communications needs1

WYE

CHAIN

RING

STAR

FULL

Communications Needs
  • Communications directions
  • Network connectivity
communications needs2
Communications Needs
  • Communications directions
  • Network connectivity
  • Data types to support group roles
  • Individual-Oriented
  • Recognition
  • Blocking
  • Domination
  • Avoiding
  • Task-Oriented
  • New ideas
  • Solutions
  • Products
  • Questions
  • Information
  • Coordination
  • Evaluation
  • Group-Oriented
  • Standards
  • Feedback
  • Encouragement
  • Harmony
  • Gatekeeping
verbal vs nonverbal communications
VERBAL ISSUES

Words used have different meanings

Amount of information

Bypassing

NONVERBAL ISSUES

Body language

Use of space

Use of time

Paralanguage - pauses, intonation, rate, tone, volume

Artifacts - objects with or on the person

SEND

FILTERS

CHANNEL

NOISE

RECEIVE

FILTERS

MESSAGE

UNDERSTOOD

MESSAGE

INTENDED

MESSAGE

RECEIVED

MESSAGE

SENT

Verbal vs NonVerbal Communications
  • Select method based on content
  • Rich methods for ambiguous, complex content
  • Lean methods for routine, simple content
why don t teams communicate
Why Don’t Teams Communicate?
  • Replace tools
  • Change culture
  • Change processes
  • Acquire tools
  • Formal training

SKILLS

NEVER KNOWN

SKILLS

NOT LEARNABLE

SKILLS WEAK,

LITTLE USED

  • Evaluate skills
  • Refresh training
  • Change culture
  • Change processes

COMMUNICATIONS

IS PUNISHED

NON-COMMS

IS REWARDED

OBSTACLES

EXIST

NOT

IMPORTANT

  • Change culture
  • Change rewards
  • Replace tools
  • Replace people
  • Replace tools
  • Change culture
  • Change processes

ROOT CAUSE

POSSIBLE SOLUTION(S)

SKILLS

NOT AVAILABLE

SKILLS

NOT USED

collaborative tools

Collaborative Tools

What’s Available Today for Dispersed Teams?

collaboration tool classes
Collaboration Tool Classes
  • Interconnection and security (not covered herein)
    • Internet, Intranets, Gateways
  • Data Warehouse
    • File servers, Configuration management, Internet repositories
  • Shared Information
    • Phone, E-mail, File transfers, Bulletin boards, Virtual environments
  • Meeting Support
    • Teleconferencing, Desktop conferencing, Meeting management
  • Decision Support
    • Brainstorm, Categorization, Prioritization, Documentation
data warehouse tools
Data Warehouse Tools
  • File Servers (Fast, Accurate, Lean)
    • Intranet-based file structure
    • Project files appear as separate folder on all stations
    • Mutual access to project files
  • Configuration Management (Mid-speed, Accurate, Lean)
    • Capture and control of baselines
    • Controlled, multi-level access
    • Check-in, check-out of files
  • Public Repositories (Mid-speed, Mid-accurate, Lean)
    • Internet-based ftp sites
    • Browser access
    • Immediate or delayed download
example data warehouse tools
Example - Data Warehouse Tools
  • Rational Software (http://www.rational.com)
    • ClearCase - version control, workspace management, build management, and process control.
    • ClearCase Attache - Windows client
    • ClearGuide - defining tasks, prioritizing activities, allocating resources and tracking project progress
    • Clear Quest - track and manage change activities - customize and define queries, fields, activities, and states for change request management
shared information tools
Shared Information Tools
  • Telephone (Fast, Mid-accurate, Mid-Rich)
    • Verbal plus paralanguage (tone, emphasis, pacing)
    • Excellent for ideas, two-way exchange, social impact
  • E-mail (Fast, Mid-accurate, Lean)
    • Point-to-point, addressed messages w/ or w/o ensured receipt
    • Verbal only, without feedback
    • Excellent for ideas, solutions, coordination, general information
  • File transfers (Fast, Accurate, Lean)
    • Rapid, reliable transfer of information
    • Accurate, in-depth information
    • Verbal only, without feedback
    • Excellent for technical solutions, products
shared information tools1
Shared Information Tools
  • Bulletin boards (Slow, Mid-accurate, Lean)
    • Messages posted to site available to many
    • Linked threads of related messages
    • Retain communications for longer duration
    • Excellent for unstructured discussion, broadcast of information to unknown recipients
  • Virtual environments (Mid-speed, Mid-accurate, Lean)
    • Structured site with navigation tools
    • Variety of posting tools, formats
    • Information available to participants via original tools
    • Operates real-time (virtual meetings) or as repository
    • Excellent to provide structure to on-line information sharing, data warehousing
example shared information tools
Example - Shared Information Tools

QuickTools Bulletin Board - http://www.quicktools.com

example shared information tools1
Example - Shared Information Tools

Mesa Vista - http://www.mesavista.com

examples shared information tools
Examples - Shared Information Tools
  • eRoom - http://www.instinctive.com
examples shared information tools1
Examples - Shared Information Tools
  • Multi-User Virtual Environment - SSC San Diego project
meeting support tools
Meeting Support Tools
  • Teleconferencing (Fast, Inaccurate, Rich)
    • Linked conference rooms
    • Audiovisual T.120 PictureTel standard
    • Transmitted presentations
    • Transmitted whiteboard
    • Excellent for complex, ambiguous discussion, rapid consensus
  • Desktop conferencing (Fast, Mid-accurate, Mid-rich)
    • Virtual Presentation
    • Screen Sharing
    • Virtual whiteboard
    • Internet Chat
    • Audiovisual H.323 Internet standard
    • Excellent for complex discussion of technical content
meeting support tools1
Meeting Support Tools
  • Meeting Management (Fast, Accurate, Lean)
    • Meeting scheduling with joint knowledge of conflicts
    • Participant agreement on schedules, topics
    • Agenda following
    • Excellent for setting expectation, controlling meetings
examples meeting support tools
Examples - Meeting Support Tools
  • PictureTel - http://www.picturetel.com/
    • Many related and interactive conferencing tools
  • Microsoft - http://www.microsoft.com
    • PowerPoint - virtual presentation
    • Outlook - meeting management, e-mail, scheduling
    • NetMeeting - desktop conferencing
  • Lotus Notes - http://www.lotus.com
    • Rich set of interoperating office/conference tools
  • SunForum http://sun.com/desktop/products/software/sunforum/index.html
  • Virtual Rendezvous (Visualtek) http://rendezvous.visualtek.com
example meeting support tools
Example - Meeting Support Tools

Microsoft NetMeeting - http://www.microsoft.com/netmeeting/

collaborative process tools
Collaborative Process Tools
  • Brainstorming
    • Generation of ideas, thoughts
    • Automated capture and display during brainstorming
  • Categorization
    • Tool-aided sorting, binning, categorizing
  • Prioritization
    • Rich set of voting methods - chips, ranking, weighting, etc.
    • Immediate calculation and display
    • Participant comparisons to facilitate vote evaluation
  • Documentation
    • Automated capture of entire collaborative data set
    • Immediate output in usable formats
collaborative process tools1
Collaborative Process Tools
  • Remote (Slow, Inaccurate, Mid-rich)
    • Browser-based tools, centrally-facilitated
    • Asynchronous access over structured time periods
    • Access from any Internet location
    • Excellent for semi-structured collaboration from many locations
  • Local (Fast, Mid-accurate, Rich)
    • Client-server tools, locally-facilitated
    • Synchronous access within local or virtual conference
    • Requires client software to access
    • Excellent for live, facilitated conferences
example collaborative process tools
Example - Collaborative Process Tools

Facilitate.com - http://www.facilitate.com/

example collaborative process tools1
Example - Collaborative Process Tools

GroupSystems - http://www.groupsystems.com/

more information
More Information?
  • Psychology references

Gordon, J.R. Organizational Behavior

Aamodt, M.G. Applied Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Mager and Pipe Analyzing Performance Problems

  • Tool references

picturetel.com sun.com microsoft.com

lotus.com facilitate.com groupsystems.com

visualtek.com ncms.org rational.com

and many others...

  • Or contact Honourcode for further assistance in developing collaborative environments

Eric Honour

(850) 995-1649

ehonour@hcode.com

www.hcode.com