“There’s a big difference between shooting video and making something that somebody else will want to watch.” ~Colin Barrett
There are two types of video • Analog • The original video recording method which stores or transmits signals as an electronic wave. The images and sounds are represented by continuously changing frequencies and voltage levels; highly subject to degradation and interference. • Digital • Video that was recorded in digital (numerical—0s and 1s) format OR video that has been converted to digital format using a capture device; a more consistent signal that is highly resistant to interference.
Think of the analog signal as a ramp, which is a continuous way to reach a certain height. DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALOG SIGNAL Think of the digital signal as steps, which are discontinuous and skip from one point of the signal to the next.
When an analog signal is digitized, regular samples of the signal are taken at points (steps) along the “ramp.” This is called “sampling.” DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALOG SIGNAL Large steps = low sampling rate = poorer quality = smaller file. Small steps = high sampling rate = better quality = bigger file.
Video Broadcast Standards • NTSC • most of the Americas & Japan • PAL • most of Europe, except France • SECAM • Brazil, France, southern Europe, Middle East
Resolution & Aspect Ratio • Resolution (The quality or sharpness of an image, usually measured in pixels per inch) • NTSC picture—720x480 resolution; 30 fps (frames per second) • DVDs use this resolution • PAL & SECAM pictures—720x576 resolution • Aspect ratio (the relationship between the width and height of an image—or horizontal to vertical) • Conventional video and TV: 4:3 (full screen or standard) • Widescreen movies: 16:9
Sources of Material • Use images to create videos • Purchase stock footage • Shoot video and capture • Video capture: the process of transferring video to the computer
Adobe Premiere Ulead Video Studio Sony Vegas Pinnacle Studio 12 MovieMaker Roxio DVD MovieFactory Final Cut Pro (Mac) iMovie (Mac) Software for Editing Video To create DVD movies, the software must have DVD authoring capabilities.
Common Video File Formats • .wmv—Windows media video • originally designed to play in Windows media player • .avi—audio video interleave • standard Windows video format • .mpg—motion picture experts group • compressed video format • .mov—movie • Quicktime video • .vob—video object • DVD video format
Common Video File Formats • .asf • Microsoft streaming media format • .mp4 • Mpeg file format used for video streaming • .swf • Macromedia Flash; pronounced swiff • .m4v • iMovie - iTunes
Video Cameras • There are several types of video cameras on the market • HDD—takes directly to an internal hard drive. • Mini-DV—records video to a small tape; 30-60 minutes recording time per tape • Mini-DVD—records to mini DVD; good if you don’t plan to edit • Flash drive/memory card—records to flash device which can easily be transferred to your computer • Hybrid—combines two methods on one camera
Anatomy of a camcorder • On/off switch • Record / Playback • Zoom • Storage option (tape, dvd, etc. • LCD screen • Volume controls • Tripod bush • Microphone • Accessory shoe • Hot shoe • Power source • Battery • AC • Menu • Cables and ports, if applicable
Accessories • External microphone • a shotgun microphone attached to the top of the camera • a handheld microphone you connect to the camera • a lavalier or clip-on microphone you connect to the camera • a boom microphone you connect to the camera • wireless microphones
Accessories • Tripods • Select a tripod that will support the weight of your camera • Pan and tilt heads are helpful • Lights • Mounted • External • Green screen (an example of chroma key) • A film and video technique that shoots footage against a green screen, which is subsequently removed from the image and replaced with a different background
Connecting to Computer • Video capture card • optional type of video card that will allow you to connect your camera to the computer by S-Video or composite (red/yellow/white) cables • Firewire (IEEE-1394) • most cameras will have DV out option (excellent quality) • Firewire 400 – PC; Firewire 800 – Mac • USB 2.0 capture device • can connect camera or VCR to computer
Camera Techniques Movement Shots Angles Low angle High angle Eye-level angle • Pan • Tilt • Zoom • Extreme close-up • Close-up • Medium • Long • Over-the-shoulder • Establishing • Point of view • Cutaway
Camera Tips • Avoid shooting into the light • Follow the “rule of thirds” guideline: • Points (or lines) of interest should occur at 1/3 or 2/3 of the way up (or across) the frame, rather than in the center of the frame • Leave plenty of recording time at the beginning to allow room for editing
Pre-Production (Plan the Shoot) • Brainstorming • Listing materials, characters, location • Get approval, if required • Storyboarding idea • a graphical representation of the shoot • Preparing the script • Preparing equipment • Check storage media, batteries, tripod, etc.
Production • Shooting the video • Capturing the video • The steps required for this will be dependent on the type of video camera that is available • Editing the video • Edit video to required length • Add titles, transitions, audio, etc.
Post Production • Rendering the video • The process of converting project files into one file; your software will determine the file format options available: mpg, avi, wmv, etc. • Recording video to external storage • Video can be transferred to other media devices • If creating a DVD movie, movie authoring software is required • Cleanup • Delete footage from computer • Depending on storage media, reformat or erase footage