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industrial revolution
Industrial Revolution
  • The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transport, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural in Europe, North America, and eventually the world. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. The most important development was the development of the working class- or proletariat.
old major karl marx
Old Major – Karl Marx
  • In 1848, German political philosopher Karl Marx with Friedrich Engels, published an influential pamphlet called the Communist Manifesto. Marx's criticism focused on the dominant political and economic system of his time, known as "capitalism.“Marx spoke of the dawning of a new social order based on the equal distribution of wealth. In Marxl’s idealistic vision of the future society, Marx theorized, tranquil relations would prevail and age-old problems like poverty, ignorance, and starvation would vanish. The rich would be compelled to share their with all citizens, and individuals would produce according to their abilities, and consume according to their needs. Everyone would have what they needed, and no one citizen would possess more than another. 
vladimir illych ulyanov
Vladimir IllychUlyanov
  • Marx ideas appealed to the young and idealistic Lenin. In 1898, Lenin formed the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In August 1903, the Social Democratic Party held a party congress in London. This congress was important not only because all Russian socialist groups attended but also because it marked the important split among the Social Democrats into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. Both the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks agreed to overthrow Czardom, transform Russia into a democratic bourgeois republic and in turn overthrow it by a socialist revolution. But they had great differences on the means to achieve their goals. This split between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks was formalized in 1905 and deepened in 1912 when the Bolsheviks expelled the Mensheviks from the party.
russian tsar
Russian Tsar
  • When Alexander III died in 1894, he was succeeded by his son, Nicholas II. He was the last Czar. He believed that it was his sacred duty to uphold the principle of autocracy, He was weak and indecisive in character. He easily succumbed to the influences of stronger personalities--the most important one was his wife, Princess Alexandra. She was most eager to preserve the full autocratic power for her husband, and later, for her son.
  • While the Czar clung to power, there was the emergence of more wide discontent in Russian Society which presented a greater challenge to the Monarchy. The four discontented groups were: Proletariat Marxist-oriented revolutionary parties Middle-class Peasants in the countryside. Thus a revolution was bound to take place in Russia. It took place when Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War of 1905.
the 1905 revolution failed to overthrow the monarchy
The 1905 Revolution failed to overthrow the monarchy
  • In short, the opposition forces, divided, unprepared to seize power, unable to represent the wishes of the peasants and the workers, failed to overthrow the decadent and demoralized dynasty which retained the support of the nobles, the bureaucrats and the army. 1) In 1905, for the first time in the history of Russia, millions of people in the cities and in the villages took part in a revolutionary movement. In the cities, the workers organized the soviets. The soviets were composed of men elected by workers of various factories. They had acted as an effective government for a short period of time. The St. Petersburg Soviet ordered the workers to refuse to pay taxes. The Moscow Soviet ordered the workers to launch a general strike. The peasants also formed a nationwide Peasant Union.. The 1905 Revolution was the dress-rehearsal of the 1917 Revolution.Lenin followed the events inside Russia closely. He revised his revolutionary theory. He drew the conclusion that the peasantry should be sought after as one of the main revolutionary forces in future revolutions. Trotsky also saw the value of the soviet as a form of popular government and the use of a general strike to bring down a government.
  • After the revolution, Russia had a parliament. The liberals soon dominated the parliament. They continued to press for more political freedom and parliamentary reform from the autocratic Czar.
1917 revolution
1917 Revolution
  • Between 1914 and 1917, the cities of Russia witnessed many minor revolts among the citizenry. Tens of thousands of hungry workers joined the communist "soviets"--the Russian word for "councils"--which organized massive protests and labor strikes to show their displeasure at food shortages and the endless prosecution of the war. The well-organized communists dominated the soviet leadership, and made impassioned speeches demanding "land, bread, and peace." The workers, ignored by their government, rallied to the soviets and thus added themselves to the communist cause.
  • Meanwhile, the Russian army suffered numerous defeats in the field, and Russian territory began to be lost to the enemy. Finally, in February of 1917, weeks of violent street skirmishes backed by the soviets ended with a mob assault on the seat of government. In a remarkable and long-awaited moment, the Czar's soldiers stood aside and let the people take control of the streets. On February 28, 1917, Czar Nicholas II admitted defeat, and left the royal throne.
the october revolution 1917
The October Revolution 1917
  • Lenin had two prominent communist allies: his old friend Leon Trotsky, and a new acquaintance, Joseph Stalin. The three guided soviet policy, promising workers and soldiers food, abundant land, and an end to Russiaís involvement in the war. In the future, Lenin declared, goods would not be stolen from the poor and given to the rich. Vast tracts of land would not be held aside for the church, the royal family, or the wealthy. Everyone, he said, would benefit equally from a new social order, an experiment that had never been tried before. "Land, bread, and peace" for everyone, Lenin promised: "All power to the soviets!"
  • In October of 1917, Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin decided to make their move. Thousands of soviet workers and soldiers were armed and informed of a plan to seize the government. On October 24, 1917, the assault on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, where the Provisional government was headquartered, began. By the following night, the Provisional Government had fallen, and Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin were poised on the verge of ushering in the first-ever Communist government.
revolution betrayed
Revolution Betrayed
  • The soviet leadership--Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin—immediately faced a dilemma. How could they bring about an age of peace and equality when they were confronted with opposition? Their answer was quick and brutal: The dissenting elements must be rooted out and destroyed. The soviets formed the "Red Army" and began a terror campaign which identified and executed suspected anti-Communists. Between 1918-1921, a civil war raged between the communists and their enemies. Led by Leon Trotsky, the "Red Army" prevailed, and the communists maintained their hold on power. Some wondered whether the communist revolution had already been betrayed.
  • .

Before Lenin could formulate an answer, and bring about the golden days of the new government, he suffered three paralyzing strokes. In 1922, the last episode took his life. A new leader must step forward, but both Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin coveted the seat of power