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Race and Ethnicity. Chapter 12 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach. How is race both a reality and a myth?. In the sense that different groups inherit distinctive physical traits, race is a reality.

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Race and Ethnicity

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    1. Race and Ethnicity Chapter 12 Henslin’s Sociology: A Down To Earth Approach

    2. How is race both a reality and a myth? In the sense that different groups inherit distinctive physical traits, race is a reality. There is, however, no agreement regarding what constitutes a particular race, or of how many races there are. In the sense of one race being superior to another and of there being pure races, race is a myth. The idea of race is powerful, shaping basic relationships among people.

    3.   How do race and ethnicity differ? Race refers to inherited biologicalcharacteristics but is arbitrarily interpreted. Ethnicity refers to cultural characteristics. Members of ethnic groups identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage.

    4. What are minority and dominant groups? Minority groups are people who are singled out for unequal treatment by members of the dominant group. The Dominant group is the group with more power, privilege, and social status.(May be smaller in numbers) Minorities originate with migration or the expansion of political boundaries.

    5. What heightens ethnic identity, and what is "ethnic work"? A group’s size, power, physical characteristics, and amount of discrimination heighten or reduce ethnic identity. Ethnic work is the process of constructing an ethnic identity. • For people with strong ties to their culture of origin, ethnic work involves enhancing and maintaining group distinctions. • For those without a firm ethnic identity, ethnic work is an attempt to recover one’s ethnic heritage.

    6. Are prejudice and discrimination the same thing? Prejudice is an attitude, Discrimination an act. Some people who are prejudiced do not discriminate, while others who are not prejudiced do.

    7. How do individual and institutional discrimination differ? Individual discrimination is the negative treatment of one person by another, while institutional discrimination is discrimination built into social institutions. Institutional discrimination often occurs without the awareness of either the perpetrator or the object of discrimination. *Health care after heart attacks is one example.

    8. Theories of Prejudice How do psychologists explain prejudice? Psychological theories of prejudice stress authoritarian personalities and frustration displaced toward scapegoats.

    9. How do sociologists explain prejudice? Sociological theories focus on how different social environments increase or decrease prejudice. Functionalists stress the benefits and costs that come from discrimination. Conflict theorists look at how the groups in power exploit racial and ethnic divisions in order to hold down wages and otherwise maintain power. Symbolic Interactionists stress how labels create selective perception and self-fulfilling prophecies

    10. Global Patterns of Inter-group Relations What are the major patterns of minority and dominant group relations? Beginning with the least humane, they are • Genocide • Population transfer • Internal colonialism • Segregation • Assimilation • Multiculturalism (pluralism).

    11. Race and Ethnic Relations in the United States What are the major ethnic groups in the United States? From largest to smallest, the major ethnic groups are European Americans, Latinos, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans

    12. What are some issues in race-ethnic relations and characteristics of minority groups today? Latinos are divided by social class and country of origin. African Americans are increasingly divided into middle and lower classes, with two sharply contrasting worlds of experience. On many measures, Asian Americans are better off than any white Americans, but their well-being varies with country of origin. For Native Americans, the primary issues are poverty, nationhood, and settling treaty obligations. Called the invisible minority due to the rural nature of their distribution across the country. The overarching issue for minorities is overcoming discrimination.

    13. Looking Toward the Future What main issues dominate race-ethnic relations? The main issues are immigration, affirmative action, and how to develop a true multicultural society. The answers we explore will affect our future as a society…