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Online Reading Support: A Study of Second Language Learners’ Online Reading Comprehension Strategies. Jaehan Park Jaeseok Yang Sang Jai Choi Yi Chin Hsieh 22 nd SLED Presentation. Introduction. http://www.idsnews.com/news/story.aspx?id=79635

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online reading support a study of second language learners online reading comprehension strategies

Online Reading Support: A Study of Second Language Learners’ Online Reading Comprehension Strategies

Jaehan Park

Jaeseok Yang

Sang Jai Choi

Yi Chin Hsieh

22nd SLED Presentation

introduction
Introduction
    • http://www.idsnews.com/news/story.aspx?id=79635
  • The effective use of reading strategies to help L2 paper-based reading comprehension. (Anderson, 1991; Cohen, 1998; Oxford, 1990)
  • The emergence of new literacy with new technologies (Leuet al., 2004)
    • What new reading strategies L2 readers use when reading online text. What the information seeking strategies they use in order to locate and comprehend the target text. (Coiro & Dobler, 2007).
theoretical framework
Theoretical framework
  • Reading as a process of active meaning construction (Beach, 1993; Langer, Bartolome, Vasquez, & Lucas, 1990; NICHD, 2000)
  • Knowledge acquired in L1 as resources for L2 reading comprehension (Fitzgerald, 1995; Langer et al., 1990)
  • New literacies (Leu et al., 2004)
literature review 1
Literature review 1)
  • Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001)
    • Support strategies as “support mechanisms intended to aid the reader in comprehending the text such as using a dictionary, taking notes, or underlining or highlighting the text to better comprehend it.” ( p.3).
literature review 2
Literature review 2)
  • Anderson (2003)
    • ESL students employed relatively more support strategies than native speakers.
  • Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001)
    • Native speakers with high-reading-ability also regarded support reading strategies as more valuable than those with low-reading-ability.
literature review 3
Literature review 3)
  • Huang et al (2008)
    • The use of support strategies played a key role in strategy use and contributed to most of the comprehension gains in L2 online reading.
  • Coiro and Dobler (2007)
    • Internet-based supporting tools for reading comprehension demonstrate the unique types of support strategies in online reading, in comparison with paper-based reading.
research questions
Research Questions
  • What kind of online resources international students at IU use to support their online reading comprehension? And Why?
  • How do the participants find necessary support using the online resources?
participants in depth study
Participants (in-depth study)

8 International Graduate Students (except one Chemist)

  • Born and educated outside the United States
  • Finished their undergraduate study in their home countries
  • English is their second language.
  • Advanced reader in both L1 and L2
    • TOEFL (94 or above)
participants in depth study1
Participants (in-depth study)

8 International Graduate Students (except one Chemist)

  • Advanced in their technology use
  • Nationality
    • 6 from South Korea
    • 1 from Taiwan and 1 from China
  • Major
    • 3 MBA students
    • 3 Education majors
    • 2 Science majors (1 Chemist & 1 Biologist)
online survey study
Online Survey Study

Online Survey

  • Online survey data about online reading support strategies and online services
  • Developed with consultation with the faculty supervisor based on the literature review
  • Validated via pilot tests.
  • Incentive for participation – local restaurant certificate
in depth study
In-depth Study

Revised Coiro and Dobler’s (2007) study

Pre-study Questionnaire

  • Demographic information
  • Level of English reading proficiency
  • Technology skill
in depth study1
In-depth Study

Pre-reading Interview

  • Pre-existing knowledge about topics (cloud computing & global warming)
  • Modeling
    • Think-Aloud Protocol
    • Online Reading Support
  • Incentives
    • Restaurant certificates
in depth study2
In-depth Study

Think-Aloud Protocol

  • Revised version of Coiro and Dobler
  • Pilot Tests
    • Think-aloud protocol
    • Recording Technology
    • Reading Comprehension Questions
    • Interview Questions
  • Observation & Interview Training
in depth study3
In-depth Study

Observation

  • Two texts & 9 Questions under each text
    • Main Idea
    • Reading Comprehension
    • Vocabulary
  • CamStudio
    • Sound and Video Data
  • Windows Recorder
    • Whole voice data of interview and observation
in depth study4
In-depth Study

Post-reading Interview

  • Open-ended Questions
  • 2 purposes
    • Clarifying questions about observation and think-aloud protocol
    • Personal perception about online reading
in depth study5
In-depth Study

Member Checking

  • When data transcription is completed,
  • Researcher met the participants again.
  • Check for accuracy and seek confirmation and further illumination of the observation and interview data
slide21

What kind of online resources international students at IU use to support their online reading comprehension? And Why?

slide26

How do the participants find necessary support using the online resources?

(1) Multiple resources & Verification

  • multiple websites
  • different web pages on the screen simultaneously

Ex. Kim opened Naver and Google at the same time on the screen. (observation)

  • L1 & L2 Triangulation
  • Multimedia resources
      • Youtube & images

“It’s really helpful to use Google images to understand the meaning of English words. Sometimes, it’s even better to see the pictures, rather than reading the definition in the dictionary.” (Feng)

slide27

(2) Knowledge about characteristics of websites they visit

“Google dictionary has simple interface and free of image-dense design that help them locate unfamiliar words fast. Dr. Eye provides the functions of simultaneous translator that translates every word for readers as the mouse goes.” (Feng)

slide28

(3) Content-specific website

  • Westlaw – legal topic (online survey)
  • Wolfram Online – math & physics (online survey)
  • PubMed—Medicine (Jun)
slide29

(4) searching strategies

  • The function of “Ctrl+F”

“Because there is lots of information. If I read them all, I will be lost again. The only thing I need is definition of it” (Kim)

  • Utilizing the “sorting” feature of a website

Ex. Jun typed English in Google, and when the results were pulled out, he clicked on the “only show results in Chinese” on the left navigation bar so that only Chinese results are presented.

new framework suggested
New Framework Suggested
  • 3 pilot testers
  • Participants
  • Lexical Support
    • Online dictionaries
  • Content Support
    • Web searching
    • Five domains of New literacies (Leu et al., 2004)
online dictionary use
Online Dictionary Use

Common features of online dictionaries:

  • English-Korean or English-Chinese translation
  • English-English translation
  • pronunciation
  • sample sentences
  • synonyms, antonyms
  • Encyclopedia
  • Explanations from multiple websites
highlighted features of each dictionary
highlighted features of each dictionary
  • Google dictionary: The simple interface design decreases visual noise, and it also runs faster without overloaded visuals.
slide34

Naver dictionary: It provides corpus lookup where users can see where the word is used in a wide range of different documented materials.

slide35

Dr. Eye: It does word by word translation while users are reading, and its Grammar Focus is fairly beneficial for English learners who are learning writing.

slide36

Iciba dictionary: It shows satisfyingly abundant sample sentences and collocations that offer rich input for language learners.

slide37

Yahoo dictionary: It provides users with words that are similar to the word they are looking up, which allows users to make comparisons between those seemingly confusing words. The presence of related words in Yahoo dictionary also gives it some credits. It also has the word by word translation function with the use of Mini Pen.

slide38

Depth of vocabulary--Hudson (2007)

    • Multiple meanings of a word
    • Concept behind the meanings
limitation future research
Limitation & Future Research
  • Compartmentalization
    • Collaborative study with Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
  • Participants
    • From east Asian nations
    • Advanced learners
implication
Implication

Should we teach second language students to use online reading support?

  • Explicit instruction (Chamot, 2005)
  • Peer modeling & reciprocal teaching (Coiro et al., 2008)