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The Legal Framework IOTC Requirements for Fisheries Data and levels of Compliance. Mauritius, 18-20 March 2014 Compliance Workshop: Collection and reporting of Fisheries data to IOTC. Sponsored by BOBLME-IOC-SmartFish-IOTC. Summary of IOTC Resolutions.

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the legal framework iotc requirements for fisheries data and levels of compliance

The Legal FrameworkIOTC Requirements for Fisheries Data and levels of Compliance

Mauritius, 18-20 March 2014

Compliance Workshop: Collection and reporting of Fisheries data to IOTC

Sponsored by BOBLME-IOC-SmartFish-IOTC

summary of iotc resolutions
Summary of IOTC Resolutions
  • IOTC Resolutions: IOTC and main shark species
  • IOTC Resolution 10/02 Mandatory statistical requirements for IOTC Members and Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties (CPC’s)
    • Minima requirements for the reporting of statistics to the IOTC
  • IOTC Resolution 13/08 Procedures on a fish aggregating devices (FADs) management plan
    • Minima requirements for the collection and reporting of data on FADs, drifting or anchored, used by Purse seine and pole-and-line fisheries
  • IOTC Resolution 13/03 On the recording of catch and effort data by fishing vessels in the IOTC Area of Competence
    • Minima data requirements for the collection of CATCH-AND-EFFORT data
  • IOTC Resolution 11/04 On a Regional Observer Scheme
    • Minima requirements sampling of catches in land and at-sea
summary of iotc resolutions cont
Summary of IOTC Resolutions (cont.)
  • IOTC Resolutions: Main sharks and other bycatch species
  • IOTC Resolution 05/05 Concerning the conservation of Sharkscaught in association with fisheries managed by IOTC
    • Minima requirements for the reporting of data on sharks caught on IOTC fisheries
  • Other Resolutions on sharks: Ban on catch retention and reporting requirements for:
    • Oceanic whitetipshark: IOTC Resolution 13/06
    • Thresher sharks: IOTC Resolution 12/09
    • Whale sharks: IOTC Resolution 13/05 (purse seine fisheries)
  • IOTC Resolution 10/06 On reducing the incidental bycatch of Seabirdsin longlinefisheries
    • Minima requirements for the reporting of interactions with seabirds (longline)
  • IOTC Resolution 12/04 On Marine Turtles
    • Minima requirements for the reporting of interactions with marine turtles
  • IOTC Resolution 13/04 On the conservation of Cetaceans
    • Minima requirements for the reporting of interactions with cetaceans
data requirements at a glance
Data requirements at a glance

Types of fisheries data for which the Commission has set [data collection] and reporting standards; and data resolution requested by the Commission:

full compliance coastal fisheries
Full Compliance: Coastal Fisheries

Time

Coastal Fisheries

Reports Fishing Sector

Sampling in land

Coverage ≥ 5% vessel activities (e.g. trips)

At least 1 fish measured for size per ton of catch

Raising & Aggregation

Catch-and-effort estimation

Catch-and-effort (statistical area, boat-gear, species, month)

Size frequency (statistical area, boat-gear, species, month)

[Raising]

Raising

Aggregation

Fishing Craft (number boats / size category, Gear, Year)

Catch-and-Effort (boat-gear, Stat Area, Month, Species)

Socio-Economic (Various)

Nominal Catch (Boat-gear, IOTC area, Year, Species)

Size Frequency (Species, boat-gear, Stat Area, Month)

full compliance surface fisheries
Full Compliance: Surface Fisheries

Time

Surface Fisheries

Catch reports & Logbooks (Fishing Sector)

Total Enumeration

Sampling at sea

Coverage ≥ 5% fishing operations (e.g. sets)

At least 1 fish measured for size per ton of catch

Sampling in land

Size Data estimation

Catch-and-effort estimation

Discards

Estimation & Raising

Catch-and-effort (1°Grid, boat-gear-fishing mode, species, month)

Aggregation

Size frequency (5°Grid, boat-gear-target, species, month)

Raising

Aggregation

Raising

Active Vessel List

Catch-and-Effort (boat-gear-fishing mode-target, 1°Grid, Month, Species)

Discards (Boat-gear-target, IOTC area, Year, Species)

Socio-Econ. (Various)

Trip Report (1°Grid)

Nominal Catch (Boat-gear-fishing mode-target, IOTC area, Year, Species)

Size Data (Species, boat-gear-target, 5°Grid, Month)

FAD & Supply [PS+BB]

full compliance longline fisheries
Full Compliance: Longline Fisheries

Time

Longline Fisheries

Catch reports & Logbooks (Fishing Sector)

Total Enumeration

At least 1 fish measured for size per ton of catch

Sampling at sea

Coverage ≥ 5% fishing operations (e.g. sets)

Size frequency (Species, boat-gear-target species, 5°Grid, Month)

Size Data estimation

Catch-and-effort estimation

Catch-and-effort (5°Grid, boat-gear-target species, month, species)

Discards

Estimation & Raising

Aggregation

Raising

Raising

Aggregation

Trip Report (1°Grid)

Active Vessel List

Catch-and-Effort (boat-gear-target, 5°Grid, Month, Species)

Discards (Boat-gear-target, IOTC area, Year, Species)

Socio-Econ. (Various)

Nominal Catch (Boat-gear-target, IOTC area, Year, Species)

Size Data (Species, boat-gear-target, 5°Grid, Month)

dissection of catch for a fishing trip
Dissection of catch for a Fishing Trip

The IOTC definitions for nominal catches, bycatch, and discards may differ from those used in other areas

Catch-and-effort and size data shall be collected for IOTC species and the main species of sharks, as identified by the Commission, from both, nominal catches and discards

DISCARDS

  • Discards commercial and other species
  • Tuna (-like)
  • Sharks
  • Other finfish
  • Marketable (Target)
  • Tuna (-like)
  • Sharks
  • Other finfish

Retained catch

Discards

Total catch

  • Marketable (Other)
  • Tuna (-like)
  • Sharks
  • Other finfish
  • Incidental catch
  • Seabirds
  • Marine turtles
  • Cetaceans

NOMINAL CATCH

BYCATCH

importance of iotc fisheries 2008 2012
Importance of IOTC fisheries (2008-2012)

The 19 countries invited at the Workshop have reported catches of IOTC species and sharks that represent over 75% of the total catches for all fisheries and species combined in the Indian Ocean (2008-12)

Indonesia, Iran, India, and Sri Lanka caught over 50% of the total catches (2008-12)

indonesia 22
Indonesia (22%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Indonesia reported 1254 industrial tuna longliners, 19 industrial purse seiners and 2 gillnetters fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Indonesia has reported conflicting catch figures for its coastal fisheries over the time series (due to lack of sampling)
  • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately
  • Sampling in port of industrial longliners does not cover all catch components
  • Indonesia has implemented logbook and observer programmes but no data has been reported to date; size data has not been reported since 2010
iran islamic republic 11
Iran, Islamic Republic (11%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Iran reported 1229 industrial tuna gillnetters and 4 industrial purse seiners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately
  • Iran has implemented a logbook programme for its industrial fisheries but no data have been reported to the IOTC to date
  • Purse seiners do not use FADs at present (?)
  • Size data are not reported by type of fishery or IOTC grid (port sampling)
india 10
India (10%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • India reported 20 industrial tuna longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • India has reported conflicting catch figures for its coastal fisheries over the time series, in particular as regards to species and gear breakdown
  • Catches and Catch-and-effort for commercial industrial longliners are as reported by the fishing sector (in logbooks, likely to be incomplete)
  • India reports survey data for FSI longliners
sri lanka 9
Sri Lanka (9%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Sri Lanka reported 2,482 [semi-]industrial multi-purpose vessels fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Sri Lanka has strengthened its sampling programme for the coastal and offshore fisheries
  • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately
  • Statistics are not recorded by gear type (aggregated by gear)
  • No observer programme in place
maldives 7
Maldives (7%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Maldives reported 249 baitboats (multi-gear) fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Maldives has not implemented sampling for its coastal fisheries as yet
  • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately
  • Catch-and-effort, and size data for industrial fisheries not reported by IOTC Grid (a logbook programme is in place though ); incomplete species breakdown (bigeye tuna); discards not available (probably minor discards)
  • No observer programme in place
seychelles 4
Seychelles (4%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Seychelles reported 8 industrial purse seiners, 3 supply vessels, and 28 longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Seychelles has implemented a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries but the current system needs to be strengthened
  • Numbers of FADs and activities of supply vessels for purse seine fisheries not reported; No observer programme in place (to be initiated soon)
  • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Seychelles in 2012
pakistan 4
Pakistan (4%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Pakistan did not report any industrial vessels fishing for IOTC species in 2012; however, 10 gillnet vessels were reported in 2011
  • Pakistan implemented a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries with the assistance of WWF; however, no data were reported for 2012
  • At present, it is not clear if Pakistan has any industrial vessels operating on the high seas; or foreign licensed vessels operating in its EEZ
yemen 3
Yemen (3%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • At present Yemen does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species
  • Yemen has no sampling programme in place
  • To date, Yemen has not reported data to the IOTC for its coastal fisheries
  • Yemen does not license foreign tuna vessels to operate within its EEZ (?)
oman 2
Oman (2%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Oman reported 8 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Oman has implemented a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries but catches are not reported fully by gear or species
  • Catch and catch-and-effort for the industrial fleet not reported for all active vessels and not fully by species
  • No observer programme in place
malaysia 1
Malaysia (1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Malaysia reported 5 industrial tuna longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Although nominal catches and catch-and-effort are reported for coastal fisheries, the species breakdown needs to be reviewed
  • Catches and Catch-and-effort for industrial longliners are as reported by the fishing sector (in logbooks, likely to be incomplete), and refer only to IOTC Area F51
  • Malaysia has not an observer programme in place
thailand 1
Thailand (1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Thailand reported 2 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Thailand has a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries but coverage is insufficient
  • Catches for the longline fishery not fully by species
  • No observer programme in place
madagascar 1
Madagascar (<1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Madagascar reported 8 [semi-]industrial tuna longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • To date, Madagascar has not reported catches for its coastal fisheries; sampling in some provinces was implemented in 2013 (IOC-SmartFish & IOTC support)
  • Madagascar did not report data other than Nominal catches and some discards and trip reports for its longline fleet in 2012 (data reported for 2010-11 though)
  • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Madagascar in 2012
comoros 1
Comoros (<1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2011
  • At present Comoros does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species
  • In 2011 the sampling system was strengthened with the support of the IOTC-OFCF Project; IOC-SmartFish provided further support in 2013
  • Comoros licenses foreign vessels to operate within its EEZ; to date, Comoros has not reported catch-and-effort data for foreign licensed vessels
tanzania 1
Tanzania (<1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Tanzania reported 8 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Tanzania reported catches for its coastal fisheries aggregated by gear
  • To date, Tanzania has not reported data for its industrial fleet, other than information on active vessels
  • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Tanzania in 2012
bangladesh 1
Bangladesh (<1%)
  • Bangladesh is not an IOTC CPC at present (though has applied for CNCP status)
  • Data availability refers to the year 2012
  • At present Bangladesh does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species
  • Nominal catches for Bangladesh from the FAO database; catch aggregated by species and no gear information available
  • It is not known if Bangladesh licenses foreign vessels to operate within its EEZ
kenya 1
Kenya (<1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • At present Kenya does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species
  • Kenya has reported incomplete catch figures for its coastal fisheries, in particular as refers to species and gear breakdown
  • Kenya did not sample catches at the landing place in 2012
  • A sampling programme was established in 2013 (coverage levels are unknown)
  • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Kenya in 2012
mauritius 1
Mauritius (<1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Mauritius reported 5 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Mauritius has implemented a sampling system for its coastal fisheries but coverage is insufficient
  • Size data for industrial longliners refers only to swordfish and not by IOTC grid
  • No observer programme in place
  • Mauritius reported EEZ data for foreign licensed longline vessels in Mauritius in 2012 (not for purse seiners)
djibouti 1
Djibouti (<1%)
  • Djibouti is not an IOTC CPC at present (though has applied for CNCP status)
  • Data availability refers to the year 2012
  • At present Djibouti does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species
  • Nominal catches for Djibouti from the FAO database; catch aggregated by species and no gear information available
  • Djibouti does not license foreign tuna vessels to operate within its EEZ (?)
mozambique 1
Mozambique (<1%)
  • Compliance refers to the year 2012
  • Mozambique reported 1 industrial longliner fishing for IOTC species in 2012
  • Mozambique has implemented catch monitoring for is coastal fisheries; however, sampling coverage is unknown
  • Size data for industrial longliners highly aggregated, not by month and IOTC grid
  • No observer programme in place
  • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Mozambique in 2012
summary of compliance by country
Summary of Compliance: By Country

HIGHEST CATCH

LOWEST CATCH

Importance of Catch

summary of compliance by fishery
Summary of Compliance: By Fishery
  • The artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries of countries invited to the Workshop took the majority of the catches in the Indian Ocean during 2008-2012;
  • and around 35% of the total catches of industrial fisheries (2008-2012)
  • Overall levels of Compliance for countries at the Workshop:
    • Nominal catch: 5% artisanal; 35% semi-industrial; 50% industrial
    • Catch-&-Effort: Nil artisanal; Nil% semi-industrial; 45% industrial
    • Size frequency: Nil artisanal; Nil semi-industrial; 35% industrial
    • Observer Programme and discards: Nil compliance

POOR QUALITY

GOOD QUALITY

summary of compliance annual catch
Summary of Compliance: Annual Catch
  • Nominal catch: 5% artisanal; 35% semi-industrial; 50% industrial
  • Discards: Nil coverage
  • Major issues:
    • Artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries: Catch reports not validated through independent sampling of catch and effort, then:
      • Problems to allocate catches by type of fishery (catches aggregated for the artisanal and semi-industrial components)
      • Problems with estimates of total catch
      • Problems with estimates of catches by type of gear; and catches around anchored-FADs
      • Problems with estimates of catches by species
    • Industrial fisheries: Catches incomplete (no discards) and not validated due to lack of sampling at-sea, and in port (some fleets)
      • Problems to allocate catches by type of fishery (catches aggregated for the semi-industrial and industrial components)
summary of compliance catch and effort
Summary of Compliance: Catch-and-Effort
  • Catch-&-Effort: Nil artisanal; Nil% semi-industrial; 45% industrial
  • Major issues:
    • Artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries: Generalized lack of catch-and-effort data due to lack of independent sampling and poor reporting
      • Catch and effort by month not available (seasonality of many fisheries is unknown)
      • Lack of logbook programmes or poor quality data recorded on logbooks for semi-industrial fleets
    • Industrial fisheries: Lack of logbook programmes or poor quality data recorded on logbooks and data not reported for some fleets
      • Purse seine: Numbers of FADs and activities of supply vessels not reported
      • Longline: Lack of reporting for some fleets; catches by gear and target species group (tropical tunas; swordfish and albacore; other species) not reported separately
      • Other fisheries: Lack of data for industrial pole-and-line and gillnet fisheries (logbook programmes not fully operational)
summary of compliance size frequency
Summary of Compliance: Size Frequency
    • Size frequency: Nil artisanal; Nil semi-industrial; 35% industrial
  • Major issues:
    • Artisanal fisheries: Generalized lack of size data due to lack of independent sampling and poor reporting
    • Semi-Industrial fisheries: Insufficient sampling, poor coverage, and poor reporting
    • Problems shared by Artisanal and Semi-industrial fisheries:
      • Size data not representative of total catches of the fishery concerned (poor coverage and/or uneven distribution of sampling)
      • Size data combined for fisheries operated in different areas and having different selectivities (e.g. multi-gear fisheries; lack of weighting of size data)
    • Industrial fisheries: Incomplete sampling of catches and insufficient time-area coverage for some fleets
      • Length samples not by area (the majority of the longline fleets and all gillnet vessels and baitboats)
      • Lack of size data for bycatch species and discards (lack of at-sea sampling)
summary of compliance iotc species
Summary of Compliance: IOTC species
  • The majority of the catches of neritic tunas, BLM, SFA, SKJ and, to a lesser extent, YFT come from countries attending the Workshop
  • Statistics for marlins, sailfish and neritic tunas are poor quality in general, due to:
    • Problems with species identification: Catches misreported by species
    • Problems with gear and species breakdown: Catches not by gear and/or species
  • Very little catch-and-effort and size data available for species other than tropical tunas
main priorities
Main Priorities
  • Coastal fisheries:
    • Implementation (or strengthening) of sampling programmes in most countries (improvement in data collection) to achieve:
      • Separation of coastal and industrial fleets (as defined by the Commission)
      • Obtain the necessary catch-and-effort and size data from the fisheries
      • Validation of information reported by the fishing sector or, where not available, implementation of sampling to obtain the necessary data
    • Improve reporting through a better understanding of the requirements and arrangements in each country to allow the timely reporting of data to the IOTC (improvement in data management)
  • Industrial fisheries:
    • Full implementation of logbook systems to achieve 100% logbook coverage, as recommended by the Commission
    • Full implementation of the regional observer scheme (sampling at-sea) to:
      • Collect/validate length frequency data for the fishery
      • Validate the catch-and-effort data reported in logbooks
      • Obtain information on discards of IOTC species and sharks and incidental catches of other species
where do we start

Where do we Start ?

Mauritius, 18-20 March 2014

Compliance Workshop: Collection and reporting of Fisheries data to IOTC

Sponsored by BOBLME-IOC-SmartFish-IOTC

www.iotc.org