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The Legal Framework IOTC Requirements for Fisheries Data and levels of Compliance

The Legal Framework IOTC Requirements for Fisheries Data and levels of Compliance

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The Legal Framework IOTC Requirements for Fisheries Data and levels of Compliance

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  1. The Legal FrameworkIOTC Requirements for Fisheries Data and levels of Compliance Mauritius, 18-20 March 2014 Compliance Workshop: Collection and reporting of Fisheries data to IOTC Sponsored by BOBLME-IOC-SmartFish-IOTC

  2. Summary of IOTC Resolutions • IOTC Resolutions: IOTC and main shark species • IOTC Resolution 10/02 Mandatory statistical requirements for IOTC Members and Cooperating Non-Contracting Parties (CPC’s) • Minima requirements for the reporting of statistics to the IOTC • IOTC Resolution 13/08 Procedures on a fish aggregating devices (FADs) management plan • Minima requirements for the collection and reporting of data on FADs, drifting or anchored, used by Purse seine and pole-and-line fisheries • IOTC Resolution 13/03 On the recording of catch and effort data by fishing vessels in the IOTC Area of Competence • Minima data requirements for the collection of CATCH-AND-EFFORT data • IOTC Resolution 11/04 On a Regional Observer Scheme • Minima requirements sampling of catches in land and at-sea

  3. Summary of IOTC Resolutions (cont.) • IOTC Resolutions: Main sharks and other bycatch species • IOTC Resolution 05/05 Concerning the conservation of Sharkscaught in association with fisheries managed by IOTC • Minima requirements for the reporting of data on sharks caught on IOTC fisheries • Other Resolutions on sharks: Ban on catch retention and reporting requirements for: • Oceanic whitetipshark: IOTC Resolution 13/06 • Thresher sharks: IOTC Resolution 12/09 • Whale sharks: IOTC Resolution 13/05 (purse seine fisheries) • IOTC Resolution 10/06 On reducing the incidental bycatch of Seabirdsin longlinefisheries • Minima requirements for the reporting of interactions with seabirds (longline) • IOTC Resolution 12/04 On Marine Turtles • Minima requirements for the reporting of interactions with marine turtles • IOTC Resolution 13/04 On the conservation of Cetaceans • Minima requirements for the reporting of interactions with cetaceans

  4. Data requirements at a glance Types of fisheries data for which the Commission has set [data collection] and reporting standards; and data resolution requested by the Commission:

  5. Full Compliance: Coastal Fisheries Time Coastal Fisheries Reports Fishing Sector Sampling in land Coverage ≥ 5% vessel activities (e.g. trips) At least 1 fish measured for size per ton of catch Raising & Aggregation Catch-and-effort estimation Catch-and-effort (statistical area, boat-gear, species, month) Size frequency (statistical area, boat-gear, species, month) [Raising] Raising Aggregation Fishing Craft (number boats / size category, Gear, Year) Catch-and-Effort (boat-gear, Stat Area, Month, Species) Socio-Economic (Various) Nominal Catch (Boat-gear, IOTC area, Year, Species) Size Frequency (Species, boat-gear, Stat Area, Month)

  6. Full Compliance: Surface Fisheries Time Surface Fisheries Catch reports & Logbooks (Fishing Sector) Total Enumeration Sampling at sea Coverage ≥ 5% fishing operations (e.g. sets) At least 1 fish measured for size per ton of catch Sampling in land Size Data estimation Catch-and-effort estimation Discards Estimation & Raising Catch-and-effort (1°Grid, boat-gear-fishing mode, species, month) Aggregation Size frequency (5°Grid, boat-gear-target, species, month) Raising Aggregation Raising Active Vessel List Catch-and-Effort (boat-gear-fishing mode-target, 1°Grid, Month, Species) Discards (Boat-gear-target, IOTC area, Year, Species) Socio-Econ. (Various) Trip Report (1°Grid) Nominal Catch (Boat-gear-fishing mode-target, IOTC area, Year, Species) Size Data (Species, boat-gear-target, 5°Grid, Month) FAD & Supply [PS+BB]

  7. Full Compliance: Longline Fisheries Time Longline Fisheries Catch reports & Logbooks (Fishing Sector) Total Enumeration At least 1 fish measured for size per ton of catch Sampling at sea Coverage ≥ 5% fishing operations (e.g. sets) Size frequency (Species, boat-gear-target species, 5°Grid, Month) Size Data estimation Catch-and-effort estimation Catch-and-effort (5°Grid, boat-gear-target species, month, species) Discards Estimation & Raising Aggregation Raising Raising Aggregation Trip Report (1°Grid) Active Vessel List Catch-and-Effort (boat-gear-target, 5°Grid, Month, Species) Discards (Boat-gear-target, IOTC area, Year, Species) Socio-Econ. (Various) Nominal Catch (Boat-gear-target, IOTC area, Year, Species) Size Data (Species, boat-gear-target, 5°Grid, Month)

  8. Dissection of catch for a Fishing Trip The IOTC definitions for nominal catches, bycatch, and discards may differ from those used in other areas Catch-and-effort and size data shall be collected for IOTC species and the main species of sharks, as identified by the Commission, from both, nominal catches and discards DISCARDS • Discards commercial and other species • Tuna (-like) • Sharks • Other finfish • Marketable (Target) • Tuna (-like) • Sharks • Other finfish Retained catch Discards Total catch • Marketable (Other) • Tuna (-like) • Sharks • Other finfish • Incidental catch • Seabirds • Marine turtles • Cetaceans NOMINAL CATCH BYCATCH

  9. Importance of IOTC fisheries (2008-2012) The 19 countries invited at the Workshop have reported catches of IOTC species and sharks that represent over 75% of the total catches for all fisheries and species combined in the Indian Ocean (2008-12) Indonesia, Iran, India, and Sri Lanka caught over 50% of the total catches (2008-12)

  10. Indonesia (22%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Indonesia reported 1254 industrial tuna longliners, 19 industrial purse seiners and 2 gillnetters fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Indonesia has reported conflicting catch figures for its coastal fisheries over the time series (due to lack of sampling) • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately • Sampling in port of industrial longliners does not cover all catch components • Indonesia has implemented logbook and observer programmes but no data has been reported to date; size data has not been reported since 2010

  11. Iran, Islamic Republic (11%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Iran reported 1229 industrial tuna gillnetters and 4 industrial purse seiners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately • Iran has implemented a logbook programme for its industrial fisheries but no data have been reported to the IOTC to date • Purse seiners do not use FADs at present (?) • Size data are not reported by type of fishery or IOTC grid (port sampling)

  12. India (10%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • India reported 20 industrial tuna longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • India has reported conflicting catch figures for its coastal fisheries over the time series, in particular as regards to species and gear breakdown • Catches and Catch-and-effort for commercial industrial longliners are as reported by the fishing sector (in logbooks, likely to be incomplete) • India reports survey data for FSI longliners

  13. Sri Lanka (9%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Sri Lanka reported 2,482 [semi-]industrial multi-purpose vessels fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Sri Lanka has strengthened its sampling programme for the coastal and offshore fisheries • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately • Statistics are not recorded by gear type (aggregated by gear) • No observer programme in place

  14. Maldives (7%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Maldives reported 249 baitboats (multi-gear) fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Maldives has not implemented sampling for its coastal fisheries as yet • Data for coastal and industrial fisheries are not reported separately • Catch-and-effort, and size data for industrial fisheries not reported by IOTC Grid (a logbook programme is in place though ); incomplete species breakdown (bigeye tuna); discards not available (probably minor discards) • No observer programme in place

  15. Seychelles (4%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Seychelles reported 8 industrial purse seiners, 3 supply vessels, and 28 longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Seychelles has implemented a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries but the current system needs to be strengthened • Numbers of FADs and activities of supply vessels for purse seine fisheries not reported; No observer programme in place (to be initiated soon) • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Seychelles in 2012

  16. Pakistan (4%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Pakistan did not report any industrial vessels fishing for IOTC species in 2012; however, 10 gillnet vessels were reported in 2011 • Pakistan implemented a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries with the assistance of WWF; however, no data were reported for 2012 • At present, it is not clear if Pakistan has any industrial vessels operating on the high seas; or foreign licensed vessels operating in its EEZ

  17. Yemen (3%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • At present Yemen does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species • Yemen has no sampling programme in place • To date, Yemen has not reported data to the IOTC for its coastal fisheries • Yemen does not license foreign tuna vessels to operate within its EEZ (?)

  18. Oman (2%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Oman reported 8 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Oman has implemented a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries but catches are not reported fully by gear or species • Catch and catch-and-effort for the industrial fleet not reported for all active vessels and not fully by species • No observer programme in place

  19. Malaysia (1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Malaysia reported 5 industrial tuna longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Although nominal catches and catch-and-effort are reported for coastal fisheries, the species breakdown needs to be reviewed • Catches and Catch-and-effort for industrial longliners are as reported by the fishing sector (in logbooks, likely to be incomplete), and refer only to IOTC Area F51 • Malaysia has not an observer programme in place

  20. Thailand (1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Thailand reported 2 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Thailand has a sampling programme for its coastal fisheries but coverage is insufficient • Catches for the longline fishery not fully by species • No observer programme in place

  21. Madagascar (<1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Madagascar reported 8 [semi-]industrial tuna longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • To date, Madagascar has not reported catches for its coastal fisheries; sampling in some provinces was implemented in 2013 (IOC-SmartFish & IOTC support) • Madagascar did not report data other than Nominal catches and some discards and trip reports for its longline fleet in 2012 (data reported for 2010-11 though) • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Madagascar in 2012

  22. Comoros (<1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2011 • At present Comoros does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species • In 2011 the sampling system was strengthened with the support of the IOTC-OFCF Project; IOC-SmartFish provided further support in 2013 • Comoros licenses foreign vessels to operate within its EEZ; to date, Comoros has not reported catch-and-effort data for foreign licensed vessels

  23. Tanzania (<1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Tanzania reported 8 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Tanzania reported catches for its coastal fisheries aggregated by gear • To date, Tanzania has not reported data for its industrial fleet, other than information on active vessels • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Tanzania in 2012

  24. Bangladesh (<1%) • Bangladesh is not an IOTC CPC at present (though has applied for CNCP status) • Data availability refers to the year 2012 • At present Bangladesh does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species • Nominal catches for Bangladesh from the FAO database; catch aggregated by species and no gear information available • It is not known if Bangladesh licenses foreign vessels to operate within its EEZ

  25. Kenya (<1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • At present Kenya does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species • Kenya has reported incomplete catch figures for its coastal fisheries, in particular as refers to species and gear breakdown • Kenya did not sample catches at the landing place in 2012 • A sampling programme was established in 2013 (coverage levels are unknown) • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Kenya in 2012

  26. Mauritius (<1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Mauritius reported 5 industrial longliners fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Mauritius has implemented a sampling system for its coastal fisheries but coverage is insufficient • Size data for industrial longliners refers only to swordfish and not by IOTC grid • No observer programme in place • Mauritius reported EEZ data for foreign licensed longline vessels in Mauritius in 2012 (not for purse seiners)

  27. Djibouti (<1%) • Djibouti is not an IOTC CPC at present (though has applied for CNCP status) • Data availability refers to the year 2012 • At present Djibouti does not have an industrial fleet for IOTC species • Nominal catches for Djibouti from the FAO database; catch aggregated by species and no gear information available • Djibouti does not license foreign tuna vessels to operate within its EEZ (?)

  28. Mozambique (<1%) • Compliance refers to the year 2012 • Mozambique reported 1 industrial longliner fishing for IOTC species in 2012 • Mozambique has implemented catch monitoring for is coastal fisheries; however, sampling coverage is unknown • Size data for industrial longliners highly aggregated, not by month and IOTC grid • No observer programme in place • No EEZ data reported for foreign licensed vessels in Mozambique in 2012

  29. Summary of Compliance: By Country HIGHEST CATCH LOWEST CATCH Importance of Catch

  30. Summary of Compliance: By Fishery • The artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries of countries invited to the Workshop took the majority of the catches in the Indian Ocean during 2008-2012; • and around 35% of the total catches of industrial fisheries (2008-2012) • Overall levels of Compliance for countries at the Workshop: • Nominal catch: 5% artisanal; 35% semi-industrial; 50% industrial • Catch-&-Effort: Nil artisanal; Nil% semi-industrial; 45% industrial • Size frequency: Nil artisanal; Nil semi-industrial; 35% industrial • Observer Programme and discards: Nil compliance POOR QUALITY GOOD QUALITY

  31. Summary of Compliance: Annual Catch • Nominal catch: 5% artisanal; 35% semi-industrial; 50% industrial • Discards: Nil coverage • Major issues: • Artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries: Catch reports not validated through independent sampling of catch and effort, then: • Problems to allocate catches by type of fishery (catches aggregated for the artisanal and semi-industrial components) • Problems with estimates of total catch • Problems with estimates of catches by type of gear; and catches around anchored-FADs • Problems with estimates of catches by species • Industrial fisheries: Catches incomplete (no discards) and not validated due to lack of sampling at-sea, and in port (some fleets) • Problems to allocate catches by type of fishery (catches aggregated for the semi-industrial and industrial components)

  32. Summary of Compliance: Catch-and-Effort • Catch-&-Effort: Nil artisanal; Nil% semi-industrial; 45% industrial • Major issues: • Artisanal and semi-industrial fisheries: Generalized lack of catch-and-effort data due to lack of independent sampling and poor reporting • Catch and effort by month not available (seasonality of many fisheries is unknown) • Lack of logbook programmes or poor quality data recorded on logbooks for semi-industrial fleets • Industrial fisheries: Lack of logbook programmes or poor quality data recorded on logbooks and data not reported for some fleets • Purse seine: Numbers of FADs and activities of supply vessels not reported • Longline: Lack of reporting for some fleets; catches by gear and target species group (tropical tunas; swordfish and albacore; other species) not reported separately • Other fisheries: Lack of data for industrial pole-and-line and gillnet fisheries (logbook programmes not fully operational)

  33. Summary of Compliance: Size Frequency • Size frequency: Nil artisanal; Nil semi-industrial; 35% industrial • Major issues: • Artisanal fisheries: Generalized lack of size data due to lack of independent sampling and poor reporting • Semi-Industrial fisheries: Insufficient sampling, poor coverage, and poor reporting • Problems shared by Artisanal and Semi-industrial fisheries: • Size data not representative of total catches of the fishery concerned (poor coverage and/or uneven distribution of sampling) • Size data combined for fisheries operated in different areas and having different selectivities (e.g. multi-gear fisheries; lack of weighting of size data) • Industrial fisheries: Incomplete sampling of catches and insufficient time-area coverage for some fleets • Length samples not by area (the majority of the longline fleets and all gillnet vessels and baitboats) • Lack of size data for bycatch species and discards (lack of at-sea sampling)

  34. Summary of Compliance: IOTC species • The majority of the catches of neritic tunas, BLM, SFA, SKJ and, to a lesser extent, YFT come from countries attending the Workshop • Statistics for marlins, sailfish and neritic tunas are poor quality in general, due to: • Problems with species identification: Catches misreported by species • Problems with gear and species breakdown: Catches not by gear and/or species • Very little catch-and-effort and size data available for species other than tropical tunas

  35. Main Priorities • Coastal fisheries: • Implementation (or strengthening) of sampling programmes in most countries (improvement in data collection) to achieve: • Separation of coastal and industrial fleets (as defined by the Commission) • Obtain the necessary catch-and-effort and size data from the fisheries • Validation of information reported by the fishing sector or, where not available, implementation of sampling to obtain the necessary data • Improve reporting through a better understanding of the requirements and arrangements in each country to allow the timely reporting of data to the IOTC (improvement in data management) • Industrial fisheries: • Full implementation of logbook systems to achieve 100% logbook coverage, as recommended by the Commission • Full implementation of the regional observer scheme (sampling at-sea) to: • Collect/validate length frequency data for the fishery • Validate the catch-and-effort data reported in logbooks • Obtain information on discards of IOTC species and sharks and incidental catches of other species

  36. Where do we Start ? Mauritius, 18-20 March 2014 Compliance Workshop: Collection and reporting of Fisheries data to IOTC Sponsored by BOBLME-IOC-SmartFish-IOTC www.iotc.org