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Paper 3 Reminders. THREE SECTIONS. Critical Thinking Moral Reasoning Tentative solution. Mechanics. 6-8 pages long (estimate only) Critical thinking = 3 pages Moral reasoning = 3 pages Conclusion/solution = 1 pages Full Works Cited Section Writing = as perfect as you can make it

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Three sections
THREE SECTIONS

  • Critical Thinking

  • Moral Reasoning

  • Tentative solution


Mechanics
Mechanics

  • 6-8 pages long (estimate only)

    • Critical thinking = 3 pages

    • Moral reasoning = 3 pages

    • Conclusion/solution = 1 pages

  • Full Works Cited Section

  • Writing = as perfect as you can make it

  • MLA format = as perfect as possible


  • Moral reasoning
    MORAL REASONING

    • A methodology to help people deal with moral dilemmas

    • The Key to doing well on paper 3


    Moral reasoning and paper 3
    Moral Reasoning and Paper 3

    • Your paper has a value-laden problem

    • Paper 3 uses moral reasoning to assess the moral components of each position

    • Read Section 4 of the Handbook


    Moral reasoning requirements for the capstone project
    Moral Reasoning Requirements for the Capstone Project

    • For Each Side in Paper 3 you must identify analyze for the proponents and opponents

      • The Obligations inherent in the position

      • The Values underlying the position

      • The potential consequences of the position

      • The position in terms of the normative principles and theories that support it


    Moral reasoning and capstone
    Moral Reasoning and Capstone

    • Don’t simply list the values, obligations and consequences

    • Use the literature to justify these things for each side. Do not just assume that they believe it.


    What is a moral dilemma
    WHAT IS A MORAL DILEMMA?

    • Occurs when you are facing a value-laden problem and…

    • All the choices appear to have merit


    What is moral reasoning
    WHAT IS MORAL REASONING?

    • Ability to work through moral dilemmas using a rule-based framework

    • Involves both decision-making and taking action

    • Focuses on situations that involve value conflicts

      • Beliefs about what is good/desirable and undesirable


    What are morals
    What are Morals?

    • What are morals?

    • Moral Relativism

    • Moral Absolutism


    Insufficient criteria for moral decision making
    INSUFFICIENT, CRITERIA FOR MORAL DECISION-MAKING

    • Feelings

    • Religion

    • Majority view

    • Law


    Acceptable criteria for moral decision making
    ACCEPTABLE CRITERIA FOR MORAL DECISION-MAKING

    • Obligations

    • Values

    • Consequences

      Be sure to consider each criteria before making any moral decisions.


    Obligations
    OBLIGATIONS

    • Relationships imply obligations

    • Obligations relate to governmental roles

    • Obligations imply restrictions

    • Formal

      • Contracts, vows

    • Informal

      • Citizenship, friendship, family, professions


    When obligations conflict
    When Obligations Conflict

    • Sometimes both sides will have legitimate obligations

    • Give preference to the more important one

    • Try to find a middle ground and serve both

    • If only one can be served

      • What is the first obligation

      • What will cause the greatest harm if not filled


    What are values
    WHAT ARE VALUES?

    • Beliefs about what is good/desirable and bad/undesirable

    • Guide us on how to behave

    • Unique to each individual

    • Change due to time, experience


    Some examples of values terminology milton rokeach
    SOME EXAMPLES OF VALUES(terminology: Milton Rokeach)

    TERMINAL

    National security

    Family security

    Economic prosperity

    A peaceful world

    Inner harmony

    Salvation

    Equality

    Wisdom

    Justice

    An exciting life

    INSTRUMENTAL

    Imaginative

    Honest

    Kind

    Friendly

    Productive

    Polite

    Fair

    Obedient

    Generous


    Questions to help identify values
    Questions to Help identify Values

    • What utility do those holding a side expect to achieve?

    • What interest do those holding a given position wish to protect or gain?

    • What harm do those holding a position wish to prevent?


    When values conflict
    When Values Conflict

    • Select the higher ideal

    • Select the action that will achieve the greatest good

    • If there is no good, then choose the one with the lesser evil


    Consequences
    CONSEQUENCES

    They are the projected results that might occur from any given action.

    • Beneficial or detrimental

    • Immediate or long-range

    • Intentional or unintentional

    • Involve the person performing the action and/or others


    Measuring consequences
    Measuring Consequences

    • Difficult to predict because people behave irrationally

    • Immoral Acts that produce good results – No

    • Moral Acts that produce mixed consequences- maybe

    • What if a choice must be made


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