Nominative (the subject) • The subject performs the verb action. • Nouns have to AGREE with verbs • Singular nouns use singular verbs • Plural nouns use plural verbs Latin is an INFLECTED language: changing the inflection at the end of a word changes how it is used in the sentence. In Latin word order is less important than the inflected endings
Singular vs Plural • Singular subjects have singular verbs • 1st declension ends in –a • 2nd declension ends in –us or –r • 3rd declension has various endings • Plural subjects have plural verbs • 1st declension ends in –ae • 2nd declension ends in –i • 3rd declension ends in -es
The Nominative endings: DECLENSION 1st2nd3rd • SINGULAR -a-us, -r? • PLURAL -ae-i-es
Nominative • Subjects and complements both use the nominative case. • Aqua in piscināestfrigida. • Corneliusestsenator Romanus. • Materestlaeta. • When the nominative comes after a form of the verb “to be” it is called a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE
Accusativum (aka Obiectum) • The direct object receives the action of the verb. I know you. • The singular accusative ends in an –m. • 1st declension ends in –am. • 2nd declension ends in –um. • 3rd declension ends in –em. • Plural accusative always ends in an –s. • 1st declension ends in –as. • 2nd declension ends in –os. • 3rd declension ends in –es.
Describe these pictures in as much detail as you can, using the nominative and accusative cases.
Casus Genitivus • Used to show possessor • -ae / -arum = 1st declension • -i / -orum = 2nd declension • -is / -um = 3rd declension • Translate “of” or with apostrophe • It must be next to the noun it possesses (usually follows it). • Must be learned for vocabulary • Tells what declension a noun is • Shows the base of the word
Describe in detail one of these pictures using genitives, both singular and plural, from all three declensions.
The Dictionary Entry for Nouns Nominative (usually singular) Genitive (usually singular) Gender English meaning soror, soror , f. sister mater, matr , f. mother filia, fili , f., daughter filius, fili , m. son ae i is is • Tells us what declension the noun is • -ae = 1st declension • -i = 2nd declension • -is = 3rd declension • By dropping this ending, we know what the base of the noun is.
Casus Ablativus • Is used with Latin prepositions • e / ex • Sub • in • cum • Can be used without a Latin preposition (“naked ablative”). Translate using “by”, “with”, “from”, or “in”.
Casus Ablativus Nudus • Naked Ablatives: by, with, from ,in • Means / instrument: answers Latin question Quo instrumento? The tool the subject uses goes in the ablative case without a preposition. • Time: answers Latin question Quando? Tells when the action of the sentence takes place.
Ablatives tell us: • Where (using prepositional phrases) • Davus in fossā stat. Geta e villā effugit. • What time (naked ablative) • Brevi tempore Cornelia est defessa. Cornelia in villā aestate habitat. • What was used (naked ablative) • Pueri puellas vocibus terrent. Marcus lupum ramo repellit. • In what manner the action was done. • Davus magnā voce clamat.
Describe these pictures using ablatives of tool, time, and with prepositions.
Praepositiones • Prepositional phrases usually describe physical location or movement direction. • Prepositions are used with only two cases: ablative and accusative. • Most prepositions “take” the accusative. The ones we have learned are ad, per,prope, and in (“into”). • There are only 9 prepositions that “take” the ablative. The ones we have learned are sub, e/ex, and in (“in / on”), cum. • In a sentence, keep the preposition and it’s noun next to each other.
Write sentences about these pictures using as many prepositional phrases as you can. Praepositiones ablativo serviunt. e / ex sub cum in Praepositiones accusativo serviunt. prope per in ad
Vocative Case • Is used when calling someone by name. • It’s endings are identical to the nominative except for the 2nd declension singular: • -us nouns have a vocative ending of –e. • -ius nouns have a vocative ending of –i. • Watch your verb endings in sentences with vocatives. The subject of the sentence could be “you” or “y’all”.
What other case has endings identical to the vocative? Can you spot the exception? The vocative case is used when directly addressing someone by name. • Quid facis, Flavia? • Quid facitis, ancillae? • Abite, molesti pueri! • Cur nihil facitis, servi ignavi! • Pater! Nuntius in villā est! • Senatores! Tempus est ad urbem redire. • Cave, Sexte! Descende, Sexte! • Scribisne epistulas, Corneli?
Miscellania • All nouns have gender: masculine, feminine, and we will learn neuter at a later date • Nouns we have met fall into 3 declensions • Adjectives have to have the same gender and number as the noun they modify. • Pater occupatus • Ancillae strenuae • Servi defessi
Verbum • Verba have singular and plural endings. • They change number according to their subject. • They can be transitive and take a direct object. • Intransitive verbs cannot take a direct object, so don’t even look for one!
Personal Endings I you he/she/it we y’all they -m or –o -s -t -mus -tis -nt • Latin uses personal endings on its verbs instead of separate pronoun subjects as English does. • The Latin personal endings correspond to the same pronoun subjects that English uses. • A Latin verb has its subject built in to the verb. It is not necessary to have a subject noun or pronoun for a Latin sentence. • But most importantly….READ A LATIN VERB BACKWARDS! nos consulimus = we consult
Look at the END of your Latin verb! Read a Latin verb “backwards” we put on indui mus mus = excita s s = you awaken intra tis tis = y’all enter
o mus nt tis t s mus s mus t s mus tis
Do you remember these categories of verbs? Let’s give them names. arripere arripio arripis arripit arripimus arripitis arripiunt portāre porto portas portat portamus portatis portant timēre timeo times timet timemus timetis timent surgere surgo surgis surgit surgimus surgitis surgunt audire audio audis audit audimus auditis audiunt 1st conjugation 2nd conjugation 3rd conjugation 3rd – i conjugation 4th conjugation Which conjugation / category do the following verbs follow? excitāre, conspicere, docēre, agere, induere, intrāre, venire?
Imperatives • The special verb form to give a command is called an imperative. • The imperative verb has no subject (“you” understood). • Singular imperatives are used when giving a command to one person. • Imperatives singular are formed by dropping the –re off the infinitive form. • Plural imperatives are used when giving a command to two or more people. • Imperatives plural are formed in the 1st, 2nd, & 4th conjugations by adding –te to the singular form. • Imperatives plural in the 3rd conjugation end in –ite.
Infinitivum Cornelius multas epistulas scribere vult. • Can never be the only verb in a sentence. • It is usually introduced by verbs such as: • vult • potest • necesse est • amat • timet • parat • It is called complementary because it completes the meaning of the sentence.
Write a story about this picturing using the following guidelines: • Tell the story from the viewpoint of one of the characters, using “I”, “we”, and “you” verbs. • Include at least one genitive • Include three uses of the ablative: • Ablative with a Latin preposition • Ablative of time (naked abl) • Ablative of tool (naked abl) • Include the following vocabulary: • amicus fero, ferre invenio, invenire traho, trahere bonus, bona miser, misera absum, abest area quamquam cum ursus, ursi, m. bear porcellus, porcelli, m. piglet Ior, ioris, m. Eyore tigris, tigris, m. tiger