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The Decline of the City-State & the rise of the Hellenistic Age. Alexander the Great (336-323 BC). Effects of the Peloponnesian Wars, 431-404 BC. Despite the restoration of democratic government, Athens never returned to its former power…

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effects of the peloponnesian wars 431 404 bc
Effects of the Peloponnesian Wars,431-404 BC
  • Despite the restoration of democratic government, Athens never returned to its former power…
  • A spirit of pessimism and disillusionment prevailed among intellectuals & the young
  • Constant warfare among other states continued…
  • In 371, Sparta lost its first war to Thebes
  • The loss of manpower on both sides weakened all of Greece
philip ii of macedon r 359 336 bc
Philip II of Macedon r. 359-336 BC
  • An ambitious and resourceful ruler of Macedonia who built up his army and planned to conquer the Greeks and the Persians.
the philippics
“The Philippics”
  • A series of fiery speeches by Demosthenes
  • In 338 BC, Philip defeated Athens and its allies and created “The League of Corinth”
alexander the great r 336 323 bc
Alexander the Great, r 336-323 BC
  • Inherited an empire
  • Destruction of Thebes
alexander iii the legend
Alexander III…The Legend:
  • He wanted to conquer the known world…
  • His goal may have been to have a stable empire with no threats to his vast holdings…
  • Some say he had a vision to unite the human race and create one empire where people could live in peace and harmony…
  • Another interpretation sees him as a paranoiac-tyrant.
alexander in egypt
Alexander in Egypt
  • Welcomed as a liberator from Persian tyranny
  • Hailed as Pharoah and given the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Irony: a barbarian chief of a backwater kingdom in the Balkan mountains had become the ruler of the oldest civilization on earth.
  • Egypt had always been the object of awe and source of inspiration to the Greeks
  • Egyptian priesthood proclaimed him the son of Amun-Ra (whom they identified as Zeus) and therefore a god himself.
alexander s final campaign
Alexander’s final campaign…
  • Alexander’s expansionism ended in the mountainous regions of Bactria(present-day Afghanistan) where his army experienced its hardest fighting and never succeeded in getting more than a tenuous hold on the territory.
  • Alexander’s last battle, Hydaspes, 326 BC, on the banks of the Indus River, was an empty victory- his famous horse Bucephalus was killed and his men, thousands of miles and eight years from home, refused to go on.
alexander died in 323 bc
Alexander died in 323 BC
  • Returning to Babylon, Alexander began the

consolidation of his empire:

> integrated Greek and Persian armies

> arranged a mass marriage of his Greek

officers with Persian noblewomen;

>punished soldiers who did not respect Persian culture;

  • Adopted Persian dress for himself
  • Encouraged the ritual of proskynesis
alexander s legacy
Alexander’s Legacy…
  • He pushed the world in a new direction- a fusion of disparate people & an intermingling of cultures
  • The Hellenistic Age begins with his death in 323 BC and ends with the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC.
Alexander’s vast empire merged many peoples into a new, cosmopolitan culture known as “Hellenistic Civilization.”
  • Map of Alex empire goes here
the empire was divided among 4 generals
The empire was divided among 4 generals

Seleucus; Ptolemy; Lysimachus and Cassander

  • In the lands he conquered, Alexander introduced Greek language, literature and art;
  • established over 70 cities: Alexandria
  • Hellenistic society is characterized by a mingling of Greek, Egyptian & Persian cultures
  • A world community joined by commerce, trade and travel replaced the Polis as the center of life
  • New philosophies- Stoicism and Epicureanism emerged to help the common man cope with their new status in a world community instead of the local polis.
hellenistic science and math
Hellenistic Science and Math
  • Euclid (about 300 BC):Geometry
  • Archimedes (287-212 BC):Mathematician and Scientist – discovered principles of the lever, the pulley and specific gravity.
  • Aristarchus (310-230 BC):Astronomy-concluded the earth revolved around the sun
  • Architecture: emphasized size and grandeur
  • Sculpture: showed realism and individuality
zeno 342 270 bc stoicism
Zeno (342-270 BC)Stoicism:
  • Urged individuals to live according to reason and be indifferent to pleasure and pain
  • Avoid desires and disappointments; calmly accept whatever life brings your way…
  • The commonality of Man: all people are morally equal, including women and slaves, because all have the power to reason…
  • Advocated high moral standards including protecting the rights of fellow human beings
epicurus 341 270 bc epicureanism
Epicurus, (341-270 BC) -Epicureanism:
  • Strive for individual happiness in the big, confusing world by avoiding pain and anxiety…
  • Criticized attempts to gain wealth, power or fame because it increases anxiety…
  • Enjoy the simple pleasures of life- talking with friends, enjoying good food or just “lying on soft grass near a running stream.”
  • Later followers stressed the “pleasure” rather than the simplicity!