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Legend and History. Old English. Timeline. Roman Britain. Before Romans, there were Celts 54BC, Julius Caesar launches Roman invasion of Great Britain (100 years) AD49, First official Roman city, Colchester, est. Roman Expansion. AD122, Hadrian’s Wall constructed AD142 Antonine Wall.

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roman britain
Roman Britain
  • Before Romans, there were Celts
  • 54BC, Julius Caesar launches Roman invasion of Great Britain (100 years)
  • AD49, First official Roman city, Colchester, est.
roman expansion
Roman Expansion
  • AD122, Hadrian’s Wall constructed
  • AD142 Antonine Wall
problems and changes
Problems and Changes
  • Next 150+, usurpers…
  • AD400, Roman troops withdraw
  • AD409, Britons throw off their allegiance to Rome…
roman legacy
Roman Legacy
  • Infrastructure (roads, cities, Latin)
  • Provided details of life before them…
    • Many different, warring tribes
    • “Pagan,” Druid priests
    • Agricultural lifestyle
    • Organized
    • Brythons
conversion paganism to christianity
Conversion: Paganism to Christianity
  • What does it mean to be “pagan”?
    • Polytheistic
    • Nature
  • 430 -600AD Missionaries; 313AD, Constantine and the Edict of Milan
  • Ethelbert of Kent becomes first Christian king in England
the vikings
The Vikings
  • 800-1000s; fierce
alfred the great
Alfred “the Great”
  • 871 – 899, of Anglo-Saxon origin
  • Lead the resistance against further encroachment by the Vikings
  • Beginnings of a real national identity
language
Language
  • Before Roman invasion… ???
  • Romans brought Latin, but…
  • Angles, Saxons, and Jutes brought a Germanic based language which is what we call Old English
  • Spoken NOT written until later
sample anglo saxon words
Sample Anglo-Saxon words
  • Bedd
  • Candel
  • Eorth
  • Froendscipe
  • Mann
  • Moder
  • waeter
poetry
Poetry
  • Elegy – a lyric poem mourning the loss of someone or something.
  • Epic – a long narrative poem that recounts the adventures of a legendary hero in pursuit of a goal of national importance.
motifs
Motifs
  • Exile/alienation
  • Love
  • Fate/destiny (wyrd/lof)
  • Pagan vs. Christian values
  • Kinship (comitatus)
  • Cold/winter (imagery)
  • Kennings
  • Alliteration
the norman conquest
The Norman Conquest
  • William, Duke of Normandy, had family ties to the English line of succession.
  • Edward the Confessor, the English king, dies in 1066.
  • The Saxon council of elders chooses Harold the II to be the next king.
the norman conquest cont d
The Norman Conquest cont’d
  • William of Normandy claims the throne was promised to him; he crosses the English Channel to assert his claim by force.
  • At the Battle of Hastings, Harold is killed and William emerges victorious.
the norman conquest cont d1
The Norman Conquest cont’d
  • Over the next 5 years, William suppressed the Anglo-Saxon nobility and confiscated their lands.
  • He also made sure that business was conducted in Norman French or Latin.
feudalism
Feudalism
  • Involved an exchange of property for personal service.
  • In theory, all the land belonged to the king and he parceled it out to his supporters, who paid the king taxes, fees, and supplied knights (professional soldiers).
  • These men were given titles of nobility.
henry i and ii
Henry I and II
  • As the fourth son of William the Conqueror, Henry I ruled from 1100 to 1135.
  • In 1154, his son, Henry II, took over.
  • The Church/Pope had ultimate rule; Henry II wanted more autonomy.
  • Archbishop of Canterbury
tomas becket and canterbury
Tomas Becket and Canterbury
  • In 1170, four knights murder Becket at the altar in the church at Canterbury.
  • Appalled, Henry declares it a holy journey (pilgrimage) to go to Becket’s tomb.
  • This became a means of showing one’s religious devotion.
the magna carta
The Magna Carta
  • Richard I spent lots of time and money fighting overseas.
  • King John inherited his debts and tried to raise money by ordering new taxes on his barons.
  • This brought England to the brink of civil war.
  • King John and the Magna Carta
1300s
1300s
  • Black Death and decline of feudalism
medieval drama
Medieval Drama
  • Miracle /Mystery Plays; retold stories from the Bible
  • Later, morality plays become popular which depicted the lives of ordinary people and taught moral lessons.
language and literature
Language and Literature
  • When the French speaking Normans invaded, Old English was flooded with French words.
  • For example: sir, madam, courtesy, honor, chivalry, dine, table, roast, court, and royal.
  • This infusion gave us what we now call Middle English.
old english vs middle english
Old English vs. Middle English

Ourefadirþat art in heueneshalwid be þi name;  þireume or kyngdom come to be. Be þiwille don in herþe as it is doun in heuene. yeue to us today oureechedayes bred. And foryeue to us ouredettisþat is ouresynnys as we foryeuen to ouredettourisþat is to men þathansynned in us. And lede us not into temptacion but delyuere us from euyl.

Fæderureþuþeeart on heofonumsiþinnamagehalgodtobecumeþin rice gewurþeþinwilla on eorðanswaswa on heofonumurnegedæghwamlicanhlafsyle us to dægand forgyf us uregyltasswaswa we forgyfaðurumgyltendumand ne gelædþu us on costnunge ac alys us of yfelesoþlice.

language and literature1
Language and Literature
  • 1454, Gutenberg and the printing press. (Bible)
  • 1476, William Caxton sets up the first movable type press. (Canterbury Tales)
  • This eliminates the need for scribes.
language and literature2
Language and Literature
  • Medieval romances - tales describing the adventures of knights.
    • The most popular romances told about King Arthur, a Celtic hero and legend.
  • Chaucer and realism