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Invertebrates

Invertebrates

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Invertebrates

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  1. Invertebrates Chapter 29 and 30 Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Roundworms, mollusks, annelids

  2. Animal Kingdom Characteristics • - multicellular • - eukaryotic • - heterotrophs • - movement • - tissues

  3. - Bilateral Symmetry- equal halves in one direction Body Plans

  4. Radial Symmetry • - 360 degrees; equal halves

  5. - Asymmetry- cannot cut in equal halves

  6. - Ectoderm- outside body layer- skin and hair - Endoderm- inside body layer- digestive tract Body Development

  7. - Mesoderm- middle layer- muscles, blood and organs

  8. - Types of Body Cavities: • 1. Coelom- true body cavity • - surrounded by mesoderm

  9. -2. Pseudocoelom- false cavity - between mesoderm and endoderm

  10. 3. Acoelomate • No body cavity.

  11. Let’s Review. What type of symmetry is this?

  12. What type of symmetry?

  13. Symmetry?

  14. - Vertebrates- animals with backbones • - fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

  15. - Invertebrates- animals without backbones • - sponges, cnidarians, mollusks, worms, echinoderms, arthropods

  16. Sponges: Phylum Porifera • Asymmetrical – no symmetry • No tissues or organs (cells work together to perform a specific function • 2 body layers: endo-, ecto- • Sessile – do not move • Variety of shapes and colors • Acoelemate – no body cavity

  17. Variety of Sponges

  18. Digestion of sponges • Sponges are consumers • Feed on bacteria, algae, protozoans (filter feeders)

  19. Sponge digestion continued:

  20. Reproduction • Either sexual or asexual • Asexual- fragmentation- each piece of sponge will grow into a complete new sponge • Sexual- hermaphrodite- produce both eggs and sperm- release into water at different times-sperm from one enters pores of other to fertilize eggs- External fertilization

  21. Reproduction continued • Produces a zygote- free swimming larvae for a short time- attaches to surface- new sponge

  22. Cnidarians- the stingersCoral

  23. Characteristics of Cnidarians • Two Types: • Polyp – sessile, tube-like with tentacles ex. Coarl, sea anemone • Medusa – free swimming, umbrella shaped • Jellyfish • Has tissues – ecto-, endo- • Nematocysts – stinging cells on tentacles • Radial symmetry • acoelamate

  24. B

  25. How Cnidarians Get O2? • Diffusion • Have nervous tissue.

  26. Reproduction • Asexual- budding- small extensions of body grow and then breaks away from parent • Sexual-some species are hermaphrodites • Others, female releases egg and male releases sperm into water- External fertilization

  27. hydra

  28. Portugese Man of War (colony)

  29. Jelly fish

  30. Sea anemone

  31. Sea Anemones

  32. Coral reef

  33. Coral reefs Structure See diagram – oldest part is deeper. Newest is toward the top. Live symbiotically with unicellular yellow brown algae- zooxanthellae

  34. Benefit of Symbiotic Relationship: Coral gets: food (coral can also capture food with tentacles) Algae gets: Protection and access to sunlight

  35. Coral Bleaching • When coral ejects it’s algae- coral turns white • Coral doesn’t get enough food- dies

  36. Coral bleaching due to: • Diseases • Increased Ultra violet radiation • Sedimentation • Pollution • Increased water temperatures • Direct destruction by humans- anchors, touching while diving

  37. Bleached coral

  38. Flatworms • Acoelomate • Bilateral symmetry

  39. Platyhelminthes – flatworms

  40. Characteristics of flatworms: • Can be parasitic, or free living • 1 body opening • Hermaphrodites or asexual reproduction by regeneration: breaking in 2, and each becomes a new organism • Get O2 through skin- diffusion

  41. Tapeworm • Body Two parts: • Scolex – head • Proglottids – body sections • Attach to inside of intestines • Parasite • Ex. Beef tapeworm: become infected by eating raw beef.

  42. Getting Beef tapeworm:

  43. Blood fluke - causes Schitomiasis