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Tissue Types. Junctions. What do you think a junciton is? Hint: Turn left at the junction of 202 and route 1 Way of attaching cells together… why necessary?. Pg 69 in text book. Tight Junctions. seal adjacent epithelial cells

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Junctions
Junctions

  • What do you think a junciton is?

    • Hint: Turn left at the junction of 202 and route 1

  • Way of attaching cells together… why necessary?

Pg 69 in text book


Tight junctions
Tight Junctions

  • seal adjacent epithelial cells

  • How Made- proteins hold the membranes of neighboring cells together

  • Functions:

    • They prevent the passage of molecules and ions through the space between cells.

  • Where found:

    • Small intestine

    • Skin


Desmosomes
Desmosomes

  • Anchoring junctions

  • How made- thickening of adjacent PMs are connected by proteins

  • Function:

    • Prevents cells that are put under stress from being pulled apart

  • Where found:

    • between skin cells

    • cardiac muscle


Gap junctions
Gap Junctions

  • Intercellular channels  tunnels between cells

  • How made- proteins that span the length of the plasma membrane & bond together

  • Function:

    • lets ions and small molecules move between cells

  • Where found:

    • cardiac muscle in the heart

    • some neurons in the brain


Body tissues
Body Tissues

  • Tissues

    • Groups of cells with similar structure and function

    • Four primary types…

      • Epithelial tissue (epithelium)

      • Connective tissue

      • Muscle tissue

      • Nervous tissue


Epithelium characteristics
Epithelium Characteristics

  • Cells fit closely together often sheet-like

  • The apical surface = free surface

  • The lower surface of the epithelium rests on a basement membrane

  • Avascular (no blood supply)

  • Regenerate easily if well nourished

    So the function and locations of these tissues would be…



Epithelium characteristics2
Epithelium Characteristics

  • Cells fit closely together and often form sheets

  • The apical surface is the free surface of the tissue

  • The lower surface of the epithelium rests on a basement membrane

  • Avascular (no blood supply)

  • Regenerate easily if well nourished

    So the function and locations of these tissues would be?


1 epithelial tissues
1. Epithelial Tissues

  • Functions

    • Protection

    • Absorption

    • Filtration

    • Secretion

  • Locations

    • Body coverings

    • Body linings

    • Glandular tissue


Classification of epithelia
Classification of Epithelia

  • Number of cell layers

    • Simple—one layer

    • Stratified—more than one layer

  • Shape of cells

    • Squamous

      • flattened

    • Cuboidal

      • cube-shaped

    • Columnar

      • column-like

Figure 3.17a


Simple epithelia
Simple Epithelia

  • Simple squamous

    • Single layer of flat cells

    • Usually forms membranes

      • Lines body cavities

      • Lines lungs and capillaries


Simple epithelia1
Simple Epithelia

  • Simple cuboidal

    • Single layer of cube-like cells

    • Common in glands and their ducts

    • Forms walls of kidney tubules

    • Covers the ovaries


Simple epithelia2
Simple Epithelia

  • Simple columnar

    • Single layer of tall cells

    • Often includes mucus-producing goblet cells

    • Lines digestive tract


Simple epithelia3
Simple Epithelia

  • Pseudostratified columnar

    • Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others

    • Often looks like a double layer of cells

    • May function in absorption or secretion


Select 1 of the following types of epithelia and be able to describe its appearance, location in the body, & function

  • Simple squamous

  • Simple cuboidal

  • Simple Columnar

  • Pseudostratified columnar


Stratified epithelia
Stratified Epithelia

  • Stratified squamous

    • Cells at the apical surface are flattened

    • Found as a protective covering where friction is common

    • Locations

      • Skin

      • Mouth

      • Esophagus


Stratified epithelia1
Stratified Epithelia

  • Stratified cuboidal—two layers of cuboidal cells

  • Stratified columnar—surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape

  • Stratified cuboidal and columnar

    • Rare in human body

    • Found mainly in ducts of large glands


Stratified epithelia2
Stratified Epithelia

  • Transitional epithelium

    • Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching

    • Lines organs of the urinary system


Glandular epithelium
Glandular Epithelium

  • Gland

    • One or more cells responsible for secreting a particular product

  • Two major gland types

    • Endocrine gland

      • Secretions diffuse into blood vessels

      • All secretions are hormones

  • Exocrine gland

    • Secretions empty through ducts  epithelial surface

    • Include sweat and oil glands


Cell sketches
Cell Sketches!

  • To get used to seeing the tissue types you will be drawing a total of 6 sketches, 2 of which will be examples of epithelial tissue.

  • Find an example of an epithelial tissue under the microscope, critically look at it, then sketch what you see

  • Grading is based on

    • color (2 for accurate realistic, 1 realistic but the color is a little off, 0 it’s not colored or does not look realistic at all)

    • Determination of the approximate size (2 if within range, 0 not)

    • Resemblance (4 pts if the sketch looks just like the specimen proper shape, proper size @ mag., attn to detail)

    • Name (1 pt for recording the sketched tissue type)

    • Magnification (1 pt for recording the total magnification at which the specimen was viewed)


Connective tissue
Connective Tissue

  • Found everywhere in the body

  • Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues

  • Functions

    • Binds body tissues together

    • Supports the body

    • Provides protection


Connective tissue characteristics
Connective Tissue Characteristics

  • Variations in blood supply

    • Some tissue types are well vascularized

    • Some

      • have a poor blood supply = ligaments & tendons

      • are avascular = cartilage

  • Extracellular matrix

    • Non-living material that surrounds living cells

    • Made of:

      • Ground substance = water mainly with adhesion proteins & polysaccharides

      • Fibers (type and amount vary)


Connective tissue types
Connective Tissue Types

  • Bone (osseous tissue)

    • Composed of

      • Bone cells in lacunae (cavities)

      • Hard matrix of calcium salts

      • Large numbers of collagen fibers

    • Used to protect and support the body


Connective tissue types1
Connective Tissue Types

  • Hyaline cartilage

    • Most common type of cartilage

    • Composed of

      • Abundant collagen fibers

      • Rubbery matrix

    • Locations

      • Larynx

      • Attach ribs to breast bone

      • Entire fetal skeleton


Connective tissue types2
Connective Tissue Types

  • Elastic cartilage

    • Provides elasticity

    • Location

      • Supports the external ear

      • Tip of nose

  • Fibrocartilage

    • Highly compressible

    • Location

      • Forms cushion-like discs

        between vertebrae


Connective tissue types dense
Connective Tissue Types- Dense

  • Dense connective tissue (fibrous tissue)

    • Form strong rope-like structures

    • Main matrix element =collagen fibers

    • Locations

      • Tendons—attach skeletal muscle to bone

      • Ligaments—attach bone to bone at joints

      • Dermis—lower layers of the skin


Connective tissue types loose
Connective Tissue Types- Loose

  • Areolartissue

    • Most widely distributed connective tissue

    • Soft, pliable tissue like “cobwebs”

    • Functions as a packing tissue

    • Contains all fiber types

    • Can soak up excess fluid (causes edema)


Connective tissue types loose1
Connective Tissue Types- Loose

  • Adipose tissue

    • Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate

    • Many cells contain large lipid deposits

    • Functions

      • Insulates the body

      • Protects some organs

      • Serves as a site of fuel

        storage


Connective tissue types loose2
Connective Tissue Types- Loose

  • Reticular connective tissue

    • Delicate network of interwoven fibers

    • Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs

      • Lymph nodes

      • Spleen

      • Bone marrow


Connective tissue types3
Connective Tissue Types

  • Blood

    • Fluid matrix = blood plasma

    • Fibers are visible during clotting only

    • Transports materials


Cell sketches1
Cell Sketches!

  • To get used to seeing the tissue types you will be drawing a total of 6 sketches, 2 of which will be examples of epithelial tissue.

  • Find an example of an epithelial tissue under the microscope, critically look at it, then sketch what you see

  • Grading is based on

    • color (2 for accurate realistic, 1 realistic but the color is a little off, 0 it’s not colored or does not look realistic at all)

    • Determination of the approximate size (2 if within range, 0 not)

    • Resemblance (4 pts if the sketch looks just like the specimen proper shape, proper size @ mag., attn to detail)

    • Name (1 pt for recording the sketched tissue type)

    • Magnification (1 pt for recording the total magnification at which the specimen was viewed)


Muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue

  • Function is to produce movement

  • Three types

    • Skeletal muscle

    • Cardiac muscle

    • Smooth muscle


Muscle tissue types
Muscle Tissue Types

  • Skeletal muscle

    • Under voluntary control

    • Contracts to pull on bones or skin

    • Characteristics of skeletal muscle cells

      • Striated

      • Multinucleate (more than one nucleus)

      • Long, cylindrical


Muscle tissue types1
Muscle Tissue Types

  • Cardiac muscle

    • Under involuntary control

    • Found only in the heart

    • Characteristics of cardiac muscle cells

      • Cells are attached intercalated disks

      • Striated

      • One nucleus per cell


Muscle tissue types2
Muscle Tissue Types

  • Smooth muscle

    • Under involuntary muscle

    • Found in walls of hollow organs such as stomach, uterus, and blood vessels

    • Characteristics of smooth muscle cells

      • No visible striations

      • One nucleus per cell

      • Spindle-shaped cells


Nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue

  • Composed of neurons and nerve support cells

  • Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body

    • Irritability—responds to a stimulus (electrical)

    • Conductivity—ability to carry an electrical current


Cell sketches2
Cell Sketches!

  • To get used to seeing the tissue types you will be drawing a total of 6 sketches, 2 of which will be examples of epithelial tissue.

  • Find an example of an epithelial tissue under the microscope, critically look at it, then sketch what you see

  • Grading is based on

    • color (2 for accurate realistic, 1 realistic but the color is a little off, 0 it’s not colored or does not look realistic at all)

    • Determination of the approximate size (2 if within range, 0 not)

    • Resemblance (4 pts if the sketch looks just like the specimen proper shape, proper size @ mag., attn to detail)

    • Name (1 pt for recording the sketched tissue type)

    • Magnification (1 pt for recording the total magnification at which the specimen was viewed)


Tissue repair wound healing
Tissue Repair (Wound Healing)

  • Regeneration

    • Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells

  • Fibrosis

    • Repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue (scar tissue)

  • Determination of method

    • Type of tissue damaged

    • Severity of the injury


Events in tissue repair
Events in Tissue Repair

  • Capillaries become very permeable

    • Introduce clotting proteins

    • A clot walls off the injured area

  • Formation of granulation tissue

    • Growth of new capillaries

    • Rebuild collagen fibers

  • Regeneration of surface epithelium

    • Scab detaches


Regeneration of tissues
Regeneration of Tissues

  • Tissues that regenerate easily

    • Epithelial tissue (skin and mucous membranes)

    • Fibrous connective tissues and bone

  • Tissues that regenerate poorly

    • Skeletal muscle

  • Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue

    • Cardiac muscle

    • Nervous tissue within the brain and spinal cord


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