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# AQA GCSE Physics 3-3 Electromagnetism

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1. AQA GCSE Physics 3-3Electromagnetism GCSE Physics pages 254 to 265 April 10th 2010

2. THE MOTOR EFFECT 13.7 How can electricity be used to make things move? Using skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works: • to explain how the motor effect is used in simple devices. Skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works set in the context of: • When a conductor carrying an electric current is placed in a magnetic field, it may experience a force. • The size of the force can be increased by: – increasing the strength of the magnetic field – increasing the size of the current. • The conductor will not experience a force if it is parallel to the magnetic field. • The direction of the force is reversed if either the direction of the current or the direction of the magnetic field is reversed. ELECTRICAL GENERATORS 13.8 How do generators work? Using skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works: • to explain from a diagram how an a.c. generator works, including the purpose of the slip rings and brushes. Skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works set in the context of: • If an electrical conductor .cuts. through magnetic field lines, an electrical potential difference is induced across the ends of the conductor. • If a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, an electrical potential difference is induced across the ends of the coil. • If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current is induced in the wire. • If the direction of motion, or the polarity of the magnet, is reversed, the direction of the induced potential difference and the induced current is reversed. • The generator effect also occurs if the magnetic field is stationary and the coil is moved. • The size of the induced potential difference increases when: – the speed of the movement increases – the strength of the magnetic field increases – the number of turns on the coil increases – the area of the coil is greater. TRANSFORMERS 13.9 How do transformers work? Using skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works: • to determine which type of transformer should be used for a particular application. Skills, knowledge and understanding of how science works set in the context of: • The basic structure of the transformer. • An alternating current in the primary coil produces a changing magnetic field in the iron core and hence in the secondary coil. This induces an alternating potential difference across the ends of the secondary coil. • The potential difference (p.d.) across the primary and secondary coils of a transformer are related by the equation: p.d. across primary / p.d. across secondary = number of turns on primary / number of turns on secondary • In a step-up transformer the potential difference across the secondary coil is greater than the potential difference across the primary coil. • In a step-down transformer the potential difference across the secondary coil is less than the potential difference across the primary coil. • The uses of step-up and step-down transformers in the National Grid. AQA GCSE Specification

3. S N - + - - + + - + The motor effect When a conductor carrying an electric current is placed in a magnetic field, it may experience a force. This is called the motor effect. Motor effect - Fendt

4. The force increases if: – the strength of the magnetic field is increased – the current is increased The direction of the force is reversed if either the direction of the current or the direction of the magnetic field is reversed. The conductor will not experience a force if it is parallel to the magnetic field. Motor effect - Fendt

5. The left-hand motor rule Note: Magnetic field direction is from NORTH to SOUTH Current direction is from PLUS to MINUS Motor effect - Fendt

6. N N N N S S S S Note: means current out of the page means current into the page Insert the missing information Q1. Force direction ? Q2 Current direction ? Q3 N and S poles ? Q4 Force directions ? Motor effect - Fendt

7. Electric current flowing around the coil of the electric motor produces oppositely directed forces on each side of the coil. These forces cause the coil to rotate. Every half revolution the split ring commutator causes the current in the coil to reverse otherwise the coil would stop in the vertical position. The electric motor Electric motor - Fendt

8. rotation axis N S + contact brush Brushes lose contact with the split ring commutator. Current no longer flows through the motor coil. The coil will continue to rotate clockwise due to its momentum. Brushes in contact with the split ring commutator. Current flows through the motor coil. Forces exert a clockwise turning effect on the coil Brushes regain contact with the split ring commutator. Current flows through the motor coil but in the opposite direction. Forces exert a clockwise turning effect on the coil. Brushes lose contact with the split ring commutator. Current no longer flows through the motor coil. The coil will continue to rotate clockwise due to its momentum. Brushes regain contact with the split ring commutator. Current flows through the motor coil but in the original direction. Forces exert a clockwise turning effect on the coil. split-ring commutator Electric motor - Fendt

9. Model electric motor Electric motor - Fendt

10. The sound signal consists of an alternating current supplied by the amplifier. This current flows through the coil of the loudspeaker. Due to the motor effect, the magnetic field around the coil causes the coil to vibrate in step with the alternating current. The coil causes the diaphragm (speaker cone) to vibrate in step with the original sound signal. The diaphragm causes air to vibrate and so produces a sound wave. The loudspeaker

11. Question Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: The motor effect occurs when a _______ carrying wire is placed inside a ________ field. The force exerted is __________ when the wire is at 90° to the magnetic field __________ but is zero if the wire is ________ to the field. The force increases with _________ or current strength, the force __________ in direction if either are reversed. Applications include the electric motor and ___________. current magnetic maximum direction parallel field reverses loudspeaker WORD SELECTION: parallel reverses loudspeaker direction field current magnetic maximum

12. The motor effectNotes questions from pages 254 & 255 • What is the motor effect? • Copy out the bullet points at the bottom of page 254 listing the factors that affect the force on a current carrying wire inside a magnetic field. • Copy and answer question (a) on page 254. • Copy Figure 3 on page 255 and explain how a simple electric motor works. Your account should include the purpose of the split-ring commutator. • Copy and answer question (b) on page 255. • Copy Figure 4 on page 255 and explain how a moving coil loudspeaker works. • Copy and answer question (c) on page 255. • Copy the ‘Key points’ table on page 255. • Answer the summary questions on page 255. Motor effect - Fendt Electric motor - Fendt

13. In text questions: No change, the actions cancel each other out. The material must conduct electricity. A direct current will not produce a changing magnetic field. Summary questions: (a) Current, coil, force, coil. (b) Current, force, coil. 2. (a) The direction of the current is reversed and so the force on the coil is in the opposite direction. (b) (i) Faster because the coil is lighter (ii) Faster because the field is much stronger due to the presence of iron. The motor effect ANSWERS

14. The generator effect If an electrical conductor cuts through magnetic field lines, an electrical potential difference is induced across the ends of the conductor. If the wire is part of a complete circuit, a current is induced in the wire. This is also called electromagnetic induction. Generator - Fendt

15. If a magnet is moved into a coil of wire, an electrical potential difference is induced across the ends of the coil. If the direction of motion, or the polarity of the magnet, is reversed, then the direction of the induced potential difference and the induced current are also reversed. The generator effect also occurs if the magnetic field is stationary and the coil is moved. Generator - Fendt

16. The size of the induced potential difference increases when: – the speed of the movement increases – the strength of the magnetic field increases – the number of turns on the coil increases – the area of the coil is greater. Generator - Fendt

17. Alternating Current Generators Most electricity is produced using the ‘generator effect’. The simplest generators and the types used in power stations produce alternating current (A.C.) Generator - Fendt

18. Moving Coil A.C. Generator Generator - Fendt

19. Generator - Fendt

20. This like an electric motor in reverse. As the coil is rotated electromagnetic induction occurs. An alternating voltage is induced in the coil. An alternating current is drawn off through two slip rings. The faster the coil is rotated: - the greater is the amplitude of the voltage and current - the higher is the frequency of the a.c. Generator - Fendt

21. When the wheel turns the magnet is made to rotate next to the fixed coil of wire. Electromagnetic induction occurs and a alternating potential difference is induced in the coil. This causes an alternating current to flow to the light bulb of the bicycle. Bicycle generator Generator - Fendt

22. The graph opposite shows the potential difference of a generator varies in time. Using the same set of axes show how the potential difference would vary if the rotational speed of the generator was doubled. PD time Question 1 The new potential difference will have TWICE the amplitude AND frequency of the original.

23. Question 2 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: The _________ effect occurs when a conductor is moved relative to a ____________ field. This is also known as electromagnetic ___________. The greater the relative __________ of the conductor and magnetic field the _______ is the potential difference ________. If the conductor is part of a ________ circuit an electric current will flow. ___________ current is produced if the direction of movement is continually _________. generator magnetic induction movement greater induced complete alternating reversed WORD SELECTION: alternating generator reversed magnetic complete movement induction induced greater

24. Electromagnetic induction Notes questions from pages 256 & 257 • What is induced in a wire because of the dynamo effect? • Copy and answer question (a) on page 256. • Copy Figure 2 on page 256 and explain how a cycle dynamo works. • Copy and answer questions (b) and (c) on page 256. • Explain how the alternating current generator on page 257 works. Your explanation should include a copy of both parts of Figure 4. • Copy the ‘Key points’ table on page 257. • Answer the summary questions on page 257. Generator - Fendt

25. In text questions: (a) (i) The current increases. (ii) The direction of the current reverses. (iii) No current is produced. The wires leading to the coil would get twisted up. No brushes are needed. (i) There is no current. (ii) A p.d. is produced in the opposite direction. Summary questions: 1. (a) The pointer would move to the right but not as far. (b) The pointer returns to zero. (c) The pointer would move rapidly to the left. 2. (a) Spin the coil faster, use more loops of coil, use stronger magnets. (b) The peak voltage would be lower and the period would be longer. Electromagnetic induction ANSWERS

26. circuit symbol The transformer A transformer is a device that is used to change one alternating voltage level to another. Transformer - eChalk

27. A transformer consists of at least two coils of wire wrapped around a laminated iron core. PRIMARY COIL of Np turns SECONDARY COIL of Ns turns PRIMARY VOLTAGE Vp SECONDARY VOLTAGE Vs laminated iron core Structure of a transformer Transformer - eChalk

28. How a transformer works When an alternating voltage, Vp is applied to the primary coil of Np turns it causes an alternating current to flow in this coil. This current causes a changing magnetic field in the laminated iron core which cuts across the secondary coil of Ns turns. Electromagnetic induction occurs in this coil which produces an alternating voltage, Vs. Transformer - eChalk

29. Why can a transformer not change the level of the voltage output of a battery? A battery produces a steady (DC) voltage. This voltage would cause a constant direct current in the primary coil of a transformer. This current would produce an unchanging magnetic field in the iron core. This unchanging magnetic field would NOT cause electromagnetic induction in the secondary coil. There would therefore be no secondary voltage. Question

30. Transformers Notes questions from pages 258 & 259 • Copy Figure 1 on page 258 and (a) explain what a transformer is, (b) what a transformer does and (c) how a transformer works. • Copy and answer questions (a), (b) and (c) on page 258. • Copy the circuit symbol for a transformer on page 259 and explain why the electric current supplied to a transformer must be alternating in order for the transformer to function. • Copy and answer question (d) on page 259. • Copy the ‘Key points’ table on page 259. • Answer the summary questions on page 259. Transformer - eChalk

31. In text questions: The magnetic field in the core would be much weaker because the core is not a magnetic material. The lamp would be brighter. The lamp would not light up with direct current in the primary coil. Iron is easier to magnetise and demagnetise as the alternating current increases and decreases each half cycle. Summary questions: 1. Current, primary, magnetic field, secondary, p.d., secondary. 2. (a) Direct current in the primary coil would not produce an alternating magnetic field, so no p.d. would be induced in the secondary coil. (b) The current would short-circuit across the wires instead of passing through them. This would cause the coil to overheat if it did not cause the fuse to blow. (c) Iron is a magnetic material, so it makes the magnetic field much stronger. It is easily magnetised and demagnetised when the current alternates. Transformers ANSWERS

32. The transformer equation The voltages or potential differences across the primary and secondary coils of a transformer are related by the equation: primary voltage = primary turns secondary voltagesecondary turns Vp= Np Vs Ns Transformer - eChalk

33. Step-up transformers In a step-up transformer the potential difference across the secondary coil is greater than the potential difference across the primary coil. The secondary turns must be greater than the primary turns. Use: To increase the voltage output from a power station from 25 kV (25 000 V) to up to 400 kV. Transformer - eChalk

34. Step-down transformers In a step-down transformer the potential difference across the secondary coil is smaller than the potential difference across the primary coil. The secondary turns must be smaller than the primary turns. Use: To decrease the voltage output from the mains supply from 230V to 18V to power and recharge a lap-top computer. Transformer - eChalk

35. Calculate the secondary voltage of a transformer that has a primary coil of 1200 turns and a secondary of 150 turns if the primary is supplied with 230V. primary voltage = primary turns secondary voltage secondary turns 230 / Vs = 1200 / 150 230 / Vs = 8 230 = 8 x Vs 230 / 8 = Vs Secondary voltage = 28.8 V Question 1 Transformer - eChalk

36. Calculate the number of turns required for the primary coil of a transformer if secondary has 400 turns and the primary voltage is stepped up from 12V to a secondary voltage of 48V. primary voltage = primary turns secondary voltage secondary turns 12 / 48 = Np / 400 0.25 = Np / 400 0.25 x 400 = Np Primary has 100 turns Question 2 Transformer - eChalk

37. Answers Complete: 50 46 V 200 9 V Transformer - eChalk

38. Transformers and the National Grid The National Grid is the system of cables used to deliver electrical power from power stations to consumers. The higher the voltage used, the greater is the efficiency of energy transmission. Lower voltages result in higher electric currents and greater energy loss to heat due to the resistance of the cables.

39. At power stations the output voltage of the generators is stepped up by transformers from 25kV to 132kV. The voltage may be further increased to up to 400 kV for transmission over long distance pylon lines.

40. The voltage is reduced in stages by step-down transformers to different levels for different types of consumer. The lowest level is 230V for domestic use. The final step-down transformer will be at sub station within a few hundred metres of each group of houses.

41. Why is electrical energy transmitted over the National Grid in the form of alternating current? To maximise efficiency high voltages must be used. Voltage therefore needs to be changed in level. Transformers are needed to change voltage levels. Transformers only work with alternating current. Question 1

42. Question 2 Choose appropriate words to fill in the gaps below: Transformers are used to change one ___________ potential difference level to another. They do not work with ____________current. Step-up transformers _________ the voltage because their ___________ coil has more turns than the primary. Transformers are used in the __________ Grid. The _______ output of a power station is increased to up to _______. A high voltage reduces the ________ lost to heat due to the _________ of the power lines. alternating direct increase secondary 25 kV National 400 kV energy resistance WORD SELECTION: energy direct National secondary resistance alternating 25 kV increase 400 kV

43. Transformers and the National GridNotes questions from pages 260 & 261 • (a) Why are transformers used in the National grid? (b) What is the advantage of using high voltages? • Copy the transformer equation on page 260. • Copy a version of the worked example on page 260 but in your version change the number of turns on the secondary coil from 60 to 30. • What is the purpose of (a) step-up and (b) step-down transformers? • Explain how the number of turns on the coils of a transformer determine whether a transformer is step-up or step-down. • State how the currents and voltages associated with the primary and secondary coils are related to each other with a 100% efficient transformer. • Copy and answer questions (a) and (b) on page 261. • Copy the ‘Key points’ table on page 261. • Answer the summary questions on page 261. Transformer - eChalk

44. In text questions: 60 turns (i) 6A (ii) 0.26A Summary questions: 1. (a) (i) Secondary, primary. (b) Up, down. 2. (a) 2000 turns (b) (i) 3A (ii) 0.15A Transformers and the National GridANSWERS

45. More power to youNotes questions from pages 262 & 263 • Answer questions 1 and 2 on page 263.

46. Motor effect - Fendt Electric motor - Fendt Faraday Electromagnetic Lab – PhET Play with a bar magnet and coils to learn about Faraday's law. Move a bar magnet near one or two coils to make a light bulb glow. View the magnetic field lines. A meter shows the direction and magnitude of the current. View the magnetic field lines or use a meter to show the direction and magnitude of the current. You can also play with electromagnets, generators and transformers! Faraday's Law - PhET - Light a light bulb by waving a magnet. This demonstration of Faraday's Law shows you how to reduce your power bill at the expense of your grocery bill. Generator - Fendt Transformer - load can be changed but not turns ration - netfirms Transformer - eChalk Electromagnetism Simulations

47. More power to youANSWERS • (a) They would not need heavy iron magnets. (b) There would be no power wasted in the wires, as the wires would have no resistance. 2. (a) Ionising radiation, carcinogenic (cancer-causing) substances. (b) People are at risk due to other causes. There is an extra risk to those exposed to these magnetic fields. (c) A hypothesis is put forward as an ‘unproven’ theory to be tested by scientific experiments. If lots of experiments are carried out and they all support the hypothesis, it gains scientific credibility and is accepted as a theory. But at any stage, it could be overthrown by any conflicting scientific evidence.

48. The voltmeter was not sensitive enough. It would also not give a read-out of the voltage, so it would be impossible to get an accurate result even if it was sensitive enough. Height on the X-axis, voltage on the Y-axis. Axes fully labelled and plots correctly plotted. In part. The voltage increased as height increased, but it was not directly proportional. 0.01V Not at the greater heights. Improve the sensitivity of the oscilloscope. Repeat his results. By checking it against other data/other similar research/get someone else to repeat his work or calculate theoretical relationships. For example: Measuring the speed of an object through a tube. How Science WorksANSWERS