Comments on Bardhan , Mitra , Mookherjee & Nath. Steven Wilkinson Yale University. Distinction between Clientelistic and Programmatic politics.
In a competitive party system, once a significant portion of the electorate (about twenty per cent) heavily prioritized reforms to patronage, political party dynamics did the rest.
Individual parties will calculate that they have more to gain by offering a pro-reform agenda—or (more likely) a mixture of reform and patronage—than by engaging in traditional patronage politics.