sedp 630 kira austin m ed n.
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Autism Spectrum Disorders
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  1. SEDP 630 Kira Austin, M. Ed. Autism Spectrum Disorders

  2. Origin of Autism • Autism was first identified as a specific disorder in 1943 by child psychiatrist Dr. Leo Kanner. Based on a study of 11 children, Dr. Kanner published the first description of what he called “autistic disturbances of affective contact.”

  3. Origin of Aspergers • Around the same time that Kanner was researching autism, German scientist Dr. Hans Asperger, based on his study of 400 children, described another form of autism that became known as Asperger Syndrome. He referred to the individuals in his study as “little professors.”

  4. Term that was coined in the autism community as a label for people who are not on the autism spectrum People have neurological development and states that are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal, particularly with respect to their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. Neurotypical vs. Neurodiverse

  5. These proposed causes of autism do not have empirical evidence supporting them • “Refrigerator Mothers” • Mercury in vaccines • MMR vaccine itself • Environmental Toxins • Immune Deficiency • Gastro-intestinal issues • Casein Free, Gluten Free Diet “Causes”

  6. These proposed causes do have increasing empirical evidence supporting them: Genetic Links Neurological Development Problems Occurring at Birth Unknown Causes

  7. Why is autism on the rise? • 3 times more likely to have autism if: • Male • Sibling has autism • Fastest-growing developmental disability • 10 - 17 % annual growth. • CDC reported in 2009: • 1 in every 110 births • 1.5 million Americans have autism spectrum disorder Prevalence

  8. ASD Identification in Virginia

  9. Autism Spectrum disorder

  10. Characteristics Executive Function deficits:planning, organizing, shifting attention and multitasking • Don’t know how to break down tasks • Don't’ know how to budget time accordingly • Organization problems (do homework but can’t find it in their backpack. • Missing proper supplies

  11. Characteristics • Generalization • problems applying information and skills across settings. • Problem solving deficits • Difficulty with day to day tasks • Difficulty asking for help • Difficulty with abstract concepts • Motor skill deficits • Fine motor • Handwriting difficulties • Problems in shop • Dressing out • Gross motor • Impact general appearance • Hamper participation in gym • Distractibility and Inattention • Looks as if they are not paying attention

  12. Other Characteristics • Visual learners • Delayed Motor fluency • Aggression, self-injury, tantrums • Over-activity and inattention • Obsessions and compulsions • Co-morbid disorders • Sleep issues • Pica • Sensory Integration Disorder • Higher rate of seizures • Anxiety, depression

  13. Reasons for behavior (non-compliance meltdown) • Failure to understand rules and routines • Desire for friendships coupled with few skills • Disruptions from pursuing special interest • Stress related to coping with everyday challenges of change and overwhelming sensory input • Transitions Behaviors

  14. Autism Iceberg We often react to behaviors that we see (disruptive, push buttons, etc.) But those behaviors won’t change unless we help the student to address the underlying issues of autism

  15. Autism in the Classroom • Incessant questioning • Question cards • Anxiety • Stress thermometer • Problems with transitions • Social stories • Poor peer relations • Empathy • Problems with conversational turn taking • scripts • Perseveration on topic • cueing

  16. Classroom Structure • Teach social skills and social interactions • Address sensory and emotional needs • Teach problem-solving and coping skills Use: • structure • predictability

  17. Accommodations • Priming • Shortened assignments • Extended time • Highlighting text • Curriculum outlines • Graphic Organizers • Visual Schedules • Offer variety of ways to demonstrate mastery • Verbal responses instead of written • Computer instead of pen/pencil • Mutiple choice test instead of short answer

  18. Cost of lifelong care can be reduced by 2/3 with early diagnosis and intervention • $60 billion annual cost • 60% of costs are in adult services • The cost of autism over the lifespan is 3.2 million dollars per person Transition/ Early Intervention

  19. T/F Children with ASD are unaffectionate. • F: some might appear unaffectionate, but might only have trouble expressing complex emotions. • T/F All children with ASD have an intellectual disability. • F: Some people with autism also have an intellectual disability. This is difficult to assess due to communication difficulties. • T/F Children with ASD have a special gift. • F: some do, but most do not. True or false

  20. T/F Children with ASD have language difficulties. • T: by definition, children with ASD have communication difficulties. • T/F All children with ASD avoid eye contact. • F: some will avoid direct eye contact. • T/F Children with ASD do not develop special attachments to people, including family members. • F: people with ASD may have difficulty expressing emotions but they do have feelings. True or False

  21. T/F Children with ASD have problems with social skills. • T: by definition. • T/F Children with ASD can be cured. • F: Currently there is no “cure” for ASD. • Children with ASD do not experience academic success and should be taught only “functional” skills. • F: some people with ASD have good academic skills; don’t assume that a lack of communication skills indicates a lack of knowledge. True or false

  22. Individuals with ASD are not able to hold a job when they reach adulthood. • F: with proper instruction many can hold a job and live independently or with some supports. • There are not effective treatments for ASD. • F: there are many treatment approaches that will work with people with ASD and lesson the effects of the behaviors associated with ASD. True or False

  23. Virginia Department of Education: Autism guidelines. Retrieved from: Autism Society of America. Retrieved from: TEACCH. Retrieved from: National Professional Development Center on ASD. Retrieved from: Resources