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  1. Respiration

  2. Respiration • Respiration the process by which food molecules are broken down • Food molecules are 6-carbons sugars • You take in food which is digested and broken down into 6-carbon sugars • Plants can’t “eat” so they make 6-carbon sugars with photosynthesis • Mitochondria then transform the “food energy” into chemical energy

  3. Respiration • A 6-carbon sugar contains an enormous amount of energy (for a cell) • Mitochondria “make change” energetically • Take the energy in a sugar and convert it into more conveniently-sized packages

  4. Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Carbohydrate Oxygen Carbon dioxide Water

  5. Respiration • Aerobic respiration: processes that require oxygen in order to take place • Anaerobic respiration: processes that do not require oxygen

  6. Aerobic Respiration • Step 1: Glycolysis • Step 2:Breakdown of pyruvic acid • Step 3: Citric acid cycle • Step 4: Electron transport chain

  7. Respiration CYTOPLASM: Glycolysis Outer membrane MATRIX: Breakdown of pyruvic acid, Citric acid cycle INNER MEMBRANE: Electron transport chain

  8. Step 1: Glycolysis • Occurs in cytoplasm • Does not require oxygen • Involves splitting a glucose (6-carbon sugar) into 2 3-carbon molecules: pyruvic acid

  9. Step 1: Glycolysis • Also produces H+ ions and energizes electrons which are captured by NAD+, forming NADH + H+

  10. Step 1: Glycolysis Glucose

  11. Step 1: Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 ADP Glucose

  12. Step 1: Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 ADP P Glucose P 2 PGAL

  13. Step 1: Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 ADP 4ADP + 4 Pi 4ATP P Glucose 2NADH + 2H+ 2 NAD+ P 2 PGAL

  14. Step 1: Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 ADP 4ADP + 4 Pi 4ATP P Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 2NADH + 2H+ 2 NAD+ P 2 PGAL

  15. Step 1: Glycolysis • Net yeild • 2 ATP (uses 2, produces 4) • 2 NADH • 2 pyruvic acid

  16. Aerobic Respiration • Step 1: Glycolysis • Step 2:Breakdown of pyruvic acid • Step 3: Citric acid cycle • Step 4: Electron transport chain

  17. Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid • Occurs when pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) enters the mitochondrial matrix • Requires oxygen • If there is no oxygen present pyruvic acid enters fermentation

  18. Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid • Involves breaking CO2 off pyruvic acid • Remaining portion of pyruvic acid combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA

  19. Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid • Also produces H+ and energizes electrons which are captured by NAD+, to form NADH + H+

  20. Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid Mitochondrial membrane To citric acid cycle “Exhaled”

  21. Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid • Net yeild • 2 NADH • Acetyl-CoA

  22. Aerobic Respiration • Step 1: Glycolysis • Step 2:Breakdown of pyruvic acid • Step 3: Citric acid cycle • Step 4: Electron transport chain

  23. Step 3: Citric Acid Cycle • Occurs in mitochondrial matrix • Acetyl-CoA is transformed into citric acid through a series of reactions

  24. Step 3: Citric Acid Cycle • More ATP and CO2 are produced • More H+ are produced and electrons are energized • NAD+ and FAD capture them to form NADH + H+ and FADH

  25. Step 3: Citric Acid Cycle 4C 6C – Citric acid CITRIC ACID CYCLE 5C

  26. Step 3: Citric Acid Cycle • Net yield • 2 ATP • 6 NADH • 2 FADH2

  27. Aerobic Respiration • Step 1: Glycolysis • Step 2:Breakdown of pyruvic acid • Step 3: Citric acid cycle • Step 4: Electron transport chain

  28. Step 4: Electron Transport Chain • Happens on inner membrane of mitochondria • Occurs only if oxygen is present • Oxygen is final electron acceptor • If no oxygen is present reaction stops

  29. Step 4: Electron Transport Chain • Electrons come from NADH and FADH molecules which gathered them during glycolysis and CTA • Energy from electrons is used to add Pi to ADP, forming ATP • At the end of the chain, oxygen accepts the electrons and combines with 2 H+ ions to form water

  30. Step 4: Electron Transport Chain Outer mitochondrial membrane Electron transport chain Cytochromes Inter- membrane space Cytochromes Inner mitochondrial membrane

  31. Step 4: Electron Transport Chain • Net yeild • 32 ATP

  32. Aerobic Respiration • Step 1: Glycolysis • Step 2:Breakdown of pyruvic acid • Step 3: Citric acid cycle • Step 4: Electron transport chain

  33. Aerobic Respiration ATP Glycolysis 2 ATP Citric acid cycle 2 ATP Electron transport chain **32 **Makes ATP from electrons carried to it from the first 3 steps

  34. Aerobic Respiration ATP Makes 36

  35. Anaerobic Respiration • Pyruvic acid molecules are still formed through glycolysis • Broken down differently: • No ATP is produced after glycolysis • NAD+ is regenerated so glycolysis can continue

  36. Anaerobic Respiration • 2 types: • Lactic acid fermentation • Alcoholic fermentation

  37. Lactic Acid Fermentation • Lactic acid is end product • Occurs when muscles require energy at a faster rate than it can be supplied through aerobic respiration • Causes burning sensation in muscles

  38. Lactic Acid Fermentation Glycolysis Glycolysis

  39. Lactic Acid Fermentation

  40. Lactic Acid Fermentation • Net yield • 2 ATP

  41. Alcoholic Fermentation • Ethyl alcohol and CO2 are end products • Occurs in organisms that live in environments lacking oxygen • Source of bubbles in beer and champagne and causes baking bread to rise

  42. Alcoholic Fermentation Glycolysis Glycolysis

  43. Alcoholic Fermentation Glycolysis 2 CO2 2 Ethanol

  44. How many ATP does aerobic respiration produce? How many ATP does fermentation produce? Comparison of Aerobic Respriation and Fermentation 36 ATP 2 ATP

  45. WE’RE DONE!!!!

  46. Step 1: Glycolysis 2 ATP 2 ADP 4ADP + 4 Pi P Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid 2 NAD+ P 2 PGAL

  47. Step 2: Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid To citric acid cycle “Exhaled”

  48. Step 3: Citric Acid Cycle 4C 6C – Citric acid CITRIC ACID CYCLE 4C 5C

  49. Step 4: Electron Transport Chain Outer mitochondrial membrane Electron transport chain Cytochromes Inter- membrane space Cytochromes Inner mitochondrial membrane

  50. Lactic Acid Fermentation Glycolysis