Disaster and ICT Systems in Japan. December 2012 Michiko Fukahori Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan. Contents. Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster Ⅱ. ICT systems which was effective in disaster situation Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning System
Disaster and ICT Systems in Japan December 2012 Michiko Fukahori Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Japan
Contents Ⅰ. Disaster countermeasures and Great East Japan disaster Ⅱ. ICT systems which was effective in disaster situation Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning System Ⅱ-2. Communications System Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing TV Mobile TV Radio Data Broadcasting Internet Ⅱ-4. Research and Development - for the future
Outline of the Disaster Management System [National Level] Prime Minster | Central Disaster Management Council | Designated Government Organizations Designated Public Corporations Formulation and promoting implementation of the Basic Disaster Management Plans Formulation and promoting implementation of the Basic Disaster Operation Plans [Prefectural Level] Governor | Prefectural Disaster Management Council Designated Local Government Organizations Designated Local Public Corporations Formulation and promoting implementation of Local Disaster Management Plans [Municipal Level] Mayors of Cities, Towns and Villages | Municipal Disaster Management Council Formulation and promoting implementation of Local Disaster Management Plans [Residents level] Designated Government Organizations 24 ministries and agencies Designated Public Corporations 56 organizations including independent administrative agencies, Bank of Japan and gas companies and NTT Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.8
Organization of National Government Central Disaster Management Council President Prime Minister Minister of State for Disaster Management Ministers Chief Cabinet Secretary Cabinet Secretariat in charge of security and risk management Ministries related to disaster management Disaster management, Cabinet Office Interact with each other Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.9
Structure of Basic Disaster Management Plan Natural Disasters Earthquake Disaster Countermeasures Storm and Flood Countermeasures Volcano Disaster Countermeasures Snow Disaster Countermeasures Accident Disaster Maritime Disaster Countermeasures Aviation Disaster Countermeasures Railroad Disaster Countermeasures Road Disaster Countermeasures Nuclear Disaster Countermeasures Hazardous Materials Disaster Countermeasures Forest Fire Disaster Countermeasures Large-scale Fire Disaster Countermeasures (Addressing all the disaster phases) Disaster Recovery and Rehabilitation Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Disaster Emergency Response (Tangible countermeasures to be taken by each stakeholder) National Government Local Governments Residents Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.11
The number of victims (deaths and missing) of disasters Storm and Floods Snowfall Earthquake, Volcano and Tsunami Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.2
Earthquake in the vicinity of Japan ③ Legend ○: Earthquakes with seismic intensity of 6 or greater ～: Active faults ② ① ⑬ ④ ⑳ ⑦ ⑲ ⑪ ⑯ ⑫ ⑱ ⑭ ⑰ ㉑ ⑧ ⑨ ⑤ ⑮ ⑩ ⑥ Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.24
The Great East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami - Date and Time: 11 March 2011 (FRI) 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) - Magnitude: 9.0(the largest magnitude recorded in Japan’s history) - Epicenter: N38.1, E142.9 (130km ESE off Oshika Peninsula) Depth 24km Miyako (Iwate) Run-up height:38m* JMA Seismic Intensity Sendai Otsuchi (Iwate) Run-up height:17m* Tokyo Epicenter Kesennuma (Miyagi) Run-up height: 20m* Fukushima nuclear power station (Japan Meteorological Agency) * The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami Joint Survey Group (http://www.coastal.jp/)
The 3.11 Disaster Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture
Summary of Damages *1As of November 7, 2011 (source: National Police Agency) *2As of November 24, 2011 (source: MAFF)
Damage to Fixed Lines, Mobile Base Stations Mobile Communications Fixed-line Communications ■ In total, around 1.9 millioncommunication lines were damaged. ■ In total, about 29,000 base stationswere damaged. 15000 ～ ～ Max. no. of damaged base stations Max. no. of damaged lines [Unit: 10,000 Lines] [base stations] fixed-line phones fixed-line phones FTTH ＋ADSL fixed-line phones FTTH
Emergence of Network Congestion Mobile Communications Fixed-line Communications ■Carriers restricted phone traffic by as much as 80 to 90 percent.* ■Carriers restricted voice traffic by as much as 70 to 95 percent.* ■Packet traffic, however, was either not restricted or restricted at a lower rate (0 to 30 percent)than voice traffic. * There was 4 to 9 times the normal volume of traffic (NTT East.) * There was 50 to 60 times the normal volume of traffic (DoCoMo). eMobile was not subject to restrictions. Max. outgoing traffic restrictions Max. outgoing traffic restrictions voice packet voice packet voice packet
Locations of Damage to Mobile Networks Base stations collapsed or backup batteries ran out Backup generators ran out of fuel because of long power outages NTT central office, customer building, etc. (relay building) NTT central office (housing building) Transmission line relay station Base station RNC Communication cable Trunk exchange Cables cut off or duct destroyed Area A Area B
Revision to Technical Standards on Measures for Countering Congestion and for Ensuring Important Communications • ●Network design capacity and communications quality reporting, etc. • Reporting to MIC of basic policy for network capacity and measures for usage restrictions and preferential treatment of important communications. • Regular actual measurement and reporting to MIC of communications quality (connection quality, etc.). • Disclosure in appropriate form of information helpful to users on basic policy for network capacity and on measures for usage restrictions. • ●Analysis of communications status during usage restrictions • Preservation and analysis of data on status of important communications and general communications during usage restrictions in the event of disaster, and continuing review of network design capacity and implementation rules for usage restrictions etc. and reporting thereof to MIC. • ●Disclosure of congestion status • Immediate disclosure of status of congestion and usage restriction in the event congestion occurs. • Announcements and appeals to avoid making inessential and non-urgent calls and to keep call time as short as possible, and to use communication methods other than voice calls, including emergency message services. Extending the list of target institutions for emergency priority calls Careful consideration based on a review of network design capacity Introducing call length limits Issue for future study Introducing phone calls with reduced sound quality Issue for future study
Thanks for assistance from all over the world Offers from 163countries and regions,and 43international organizations Condolences expressed by more than 180countries and regions, and more than 60international organizations As of October 17,2011, survey by Ministry of Foreign Affairs Japan
Ⅱ. ICT systemswhich was effective in disaster situation Ⅱ-1. Disaster Warning System Ⅱ-2. Communications System Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing Ⅱ-4. Research and Development - for the future
Earthquake Early Warning System Disaster management Organizations Main-wave S-wave P-wave Immediate action against disasters Ensure Safety of residents Public Institutions (hospitals, schools, etc. ) Ensure evacuation and safety Use to reduce damage Residents Fire prevention, evacuation Japan Meteorological Agency Dissemination Transportation, elevators, etc. Emergency stop for safety Earthquake Early Warning Companies/Factories Protection of workers and facilities against disasters Backup of important data Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.13
Early Warning Systems Loud Speaker Roof-top Installation type National Government Ministries and Agencies Related to Disaster Management Japan Meteorological Agency Local Governments Warnings Evacuation orders TV & Radio Early Evacuation Loud Speaker On-street Installation type Public-relations vehicles (Official Vehicles) Indoor receivers Source: Cabinet Office, Disaster Management in Japan, p.14
Information flow on Earthquake and Tsunami Japan Meteorological Agency Seismic data Gathering System EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) 4,200 sites around Japan.
Monitoring earthquake activities Seismic data Gathering System 4200 sites around Japan. The earthquake monitoring system collates seismic data coming from seismographs installed in 4200 locations throughout Japan.
Gathering and analyzing information on earthquake and tsunami EPOS （Earthquake Phenomena Observation System） ・Analyzes the seismic data for Earthquake and Tsunami. ・Announces Earthquake Warning alarm starting right after from detection of the earthquake.
Delivering Information on Earthquake and Tsunami Fire and Disaster Management Agency Japan Meteorological Agency Administrative Organ C I T I Z E N Local Government Telecom Carriers Media Lifeline carriers EPOS (Earthquake Phenomena Observation System) Transportation facilities Japan Coast Guard Earthquake or tsunami warnings are instantly delivered to central & local governments, broadcasters, telecom carriers. After receiving this warning, local government deliver alarm through their sirens or microphones. Ministry for Land, infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) WEB
Early Warning to Mobile Phones Detection of earthquake Japan Meteorological Agency Earthquake Early Warning Process message delivery Mail Center Disaster/ Evacuation information From state/ local governments - No monthly fee or telecommunication fee is charged
Early Warning through Broadcasting System Broadcasting Station Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) EEW Alert information in Program only EWBS EEW: Earthquake Early Warning EWBS: Emergency Warning Broadcasting System Alert information with “Switch-on” signal of receivers Automatic activation !!
Mobile television – Example 1 - One-seg Mobile TV Saved Many Lives during the 3.11 Disaster A huge earthquake struck on March 11 in the north-east area of Japan. Right after the end of the violent shakes caused by the earthquake, Mr. Takahashi, Senior Managing Director of TOYO KNIFE, an industrial cutlery company located in Miyagino district, Sendai City, immediately turned on the one-seg TV function on his mobile phone in his office, to which the power supply was cut off. He got an emergency warning alarm for a tsunami on his one-seg TV (mobile phone). Regrettably his office was located very near the port (about 500m from Sendai-Shiogama Port), so he and other staff did not have much time to evacuate, but 100 people managed to rush to a shelter on a hill. By the time they arrived at the shelter (Tagajyo Public Cultural Center) at 3:30 pm, the TOYO KNIFE office and factory had been completely destroyed by the long-lasting, huge tsunami. Mr. Takahashi said “ We couldn’t watch TV because of the power cut, but we could get information on the disaster quickly from our one-seg TVs.” Note: the one-seg TV function on a mobile phone is powered by the phone’s battery TOYO KNIFE ２５０ｍ Sendai-Shiogama Port Miyagino district, Sendai City (after the huge tsunami waves) (Summary from Sankei Shimbun (major Japanese national newspaper), June 24, 2011)
Mobile television – Example 2 - Two policemen saved 40 lives from the train with the tsunami warning alarm from mobile TV(one-seg) right after the earthquake occurred at 14:46 on March 11, 2011. They got a tsunami warning alarm from the passengers mobile phone with TV when checking if everyone is fine in the train. They quickly decided to lead the 40 passengers to the hill to avoid the disaster of tsunami. All passengers were safely evacuated from the tsunami area before the tsunami struck the train. Derailed cars of train Pacific Ocean Shinchi Station Route for evacuation Track of Japan railway Shinchi Station Town hall of Shinchi Passengers got on the truck here The hill The cars of train derailed off the track by huge tsunami waves. (March 12, 2011) (Summary from Yomiuri Shimbun(Japanese major national news paper), March 29, 2011)
Emergency system for high-speed train Measuring equipment of earthquake on railroad Measuring equipment of earthquake around coast Main-wave S-wave P-wave EARTHQUAKE STOP!! control center Measuring Equipment ofearthquake
Central Disaster ManagementRadio Communications System A Communications Satellite Transmission of pictures from helicopters ヘリテレ Prime Minister’s Office Real time pictures on the spot Tachikawa Reserve Facility of the Government Headquarters for Disaster Management Designated Public Corporation 官邸 (災害対策本部) Government designated On-site Disaster Management Headquarters Prefectures Tokyo Metropolitan Area Designated Local Public Corporations Ariake no Oka Core Wide-area Disaster Prevention Base Communications Network for Local Disaster Management Organizations Communication Network for Disaster Management Organizations Located Tachikawa Wide-area Disaster Management Base Cabinet Office (Disaster Management) Mobile equipment Communications Network for Disaster Management Organizations in Central Tokyo Source: Cabinet Office
Ⅱ-3. Information Sharing • TV • Mobile TV • Radio • Data Broadcasting • Internet
Media used at the time of earthquake Immediately after the earthquake, the usefulness of mobile phones, mobile phone messages and terrestrial broadcasts received higher evaluation and at the end of April, the evaluation of the usefulness of mobile phones, mobile phone messages and terrestrial broadcasts exceeded that of radios. During the period from the occurrence of the earthquake until the end of April, the websites and search sites of administrative agencies and news media received higher evaluation At the time of occurrence of the earthquake Immediately after the quake Until the end of April At the time of occurrence of the quake, AM radios received the highest evaluation (60.1%) followed by FM radios. Immediately after the earthquake, radios were the only means to obtain information. However, radios were insufficient to grasp the actual state of damage in the area and it took a long time to know of the enormous damage caused by tsunami. We were unable to know who was doing what and felt highly anxiousness. Disaster emergency message board and dial-up provided by telephone operators and mobile phone operators One segment broadcasting Administrative agencies’ websites Temporary radio broadcasting stations Words of mouth from neighborhoods Cable TV Disaster radio FAX Mobile phone messages BS broadcasting AM radios Search sites SNS Location based services Others Fixed line telephones Mobile phones Internet phones Internet Emails Terrestrial broadcasts CS broadcasting FM radios Internet radios News media’s websites Twitter Video sharing websites Internet broadcasting Other websites Pay phones Phone calls and Emails Broadcasting Internet Others
TV Relay Station after Disaster （Numberof station） Number of relay station off the air for TV TV stations suffered significant damages and 120 stations in eleven prefectures were out of service. As there was no power supply in the large part of the disaster areas, both transmitters and receivers were not usable. Number of relay stations off-the air for TV reached the maximum on 12th March Jun. 1 May 23 May 19 May 16 May 12 May 9 May 6 May 2 Apr. 28 Apr. 27 Apr. 26 Apr. 25 Apr. 22 Apr. 21 Apr. 20 Apr. 19 Apr. 18 Apr. 15 Apr. 14 Apr. 13 Apr. 12 Apr. 11 Apr. 10 Apr. 7 Apr. 6 Apr. 5 Mar. 30 Mar. 29 Mar. 28 Mar. 25 Mar. 24 Mar. 23 Mar. 22 Mar. 21 Mar. 20 Mar. 19 Mar. 18 Mar. 17 Mar. 16 Mar. 15 Mar. 14 Mar. 13 Mar. 12 Mar. 11 【Source】 Information material from MIC
Mobile TV in the Evacuation Center Many people watched mobile TV in the evacuation center. As power was disrupted, mobile TV was very important information source for the people in the disaster area. Image: People could see TV through the mobile phone even in the blackout in the afflicted area (Summary from Sankei Shimbun (major Japanese national newspaper), June 24, 2011)
Local Disaster FM stations Radio also played a very important role in the disaster area, as many radio receivers work with batteries and people can receive information even during a power outage. MIC also provided 10,000 radios to the disaster areas free of charge. Temporary radio stations have been set up which have been actively providing information needed at local level. Many volunteers and local government officials contributed to the operation of such local radio stations. The Studio of “Natori Saigai(disaster) FM” established at Natori City office building, Miyagi prefecture
Temporary Disaster Designated Broadcasting Stations for Devastated Area Iwate • 26 stations are established. MIC has quickly granted broadcasting licenses to local disaster FM stations, which account for 21 in the disaster area. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Miyagi ● ● ● J● ● ● ● ● ● Fukushima ● ● ● ● Newly established by communities Based on the community FM Established by broadcasters ● ● ● ● ● 36 36 国土地理院承認 平14 総複第149号
Digital Signage system at Normal Time 出典:デジタルサイネージ総研 Source: Digital signage Now
Digital Signage systems at the time of disaster Digital signage network is effective tool for information provision at the time of disaster. After the earthquake, all the train services stopped and there was terrible traffic jam in Tokyo. About 5 million people were not able to go home. Digital signage system was used as media to provide information. ■Scenes at each monitor in Tokyo on 11 March 2011 A: At a monitor set on 1st Floor at Marunouchi Building (Photographed around at 22:00) B: At a monitor set in Central Entrance on 1st Floor of Otemachi Building (Photographed around at 16:00) C: At a monitor set in Elevator Hall on B1 Floor of Shin-Marunouchi Building (Photographed around at 22:00) D: At a monitor set on B1 Floor of Marunouchi Building (Photographed around at 22:00) (Source: MITSUBISHI ESTATE CO.,LTD.)
The Internet as a Lifeline - Person Finder (Google) –Person Finder provides a registry and message board for survivors,family, and relatives affected by a natural disaster to post and search for information about each other's status. (Source: Google)
Traffic Information in Disaster Area Some car navigation system gathers driving information from navigation unit and the system consolidate information and send traffic information to users. On March 14, Honda released this driving information gathered through their navigation system on the website. This information became instantly available through Twitter and Facebook. Many people thanked that “We could deliver relief supplies”, or “We could reach family and relatives” by using this system. Road with traffic record : Blue No-traffic record: Gray Vehicle congestion : Red 22 March 6 May (Source: website of ITS Japan)
Ⅱ-4. Research and Development - for the future
R&D into Strengthening the Disaster Tolerance (3rd FY 2011 Supplementary Budget) (1) Research and development of technologies for reducing the incidence of mobile-telephony congestion during disasters (2) Research and development of technologies for autonomous recovery of disaster-damaged infrastructure This project establishes communication technologies for maintaining the use of voice calling during disasters, when voice communication increases dramatically as users make safety confirmation calls. The technologies make intensive use of non-voice communication-processing capabilities and of communications equipment located outside the affected regions. This project establishes radio communications technologies for ensuring autonomous access by local authorities and public facilities to the Internet and other communications even if the regular communications infrastructure has been damaged by disaster. Transmitting images of coastal waters System having improved flexibility Information on well-being Internet connection Data transmission Emergency voice calling important Data line Mobile-telephone network Research and development, testing/verification/evaluation Wireline network Forming a world-leading research center Communications processing capabilities for different services flexibly shared out in the event of disaster Fostering innovation, strengthening collaboration between industry, academia, and government, and promoting standardization and developing results through joint research with universities in the affected regions ●Achieving information and communications networks that are robust in disasters ●Reviving local economic activity in affected regions (3) Provision of research center at Tohoku University, etc. Japan’s National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) has provided Tohoku University with test bed facilities for testing, verification, and evaluation supported by the NICT facilities-improvement fund. Provided are communications network testing equipment introducing the world’s most advanced optical transmission technology, used in testing technologies for reducing network congestion; field-portable radio network equipment, used in testing autonomous recovery technologies; and field-portable satellite earth station equipment.
R&D on Dynamic Control of Mobile Communication Networks at the Time of a Major Disaster • Flexible reconfiguration of communication processing resources • Maximum possible resources can be directed to basic communication services during a disaster. Next-generation congestion-proof system Email, internet Email, internet Voice calls Music Movies Files Voice calls Music Movies Files Normal use … … Basic communication services Rich media etc. Basic communication services Rich media etc. Emergency use … Email, internet (emergency message boards) Voice calls Other Voice calls Music Movies Files Email, internet (emergency message boards) No possibility to reconfigure or redirect processing resources Dynamic allocation of processing resources
R&D on Inter-Cloud Technology for Wide-area Disaster Responses • Sharing resources among multiple cloud systems by optimal communication route after a large-scale disaster • Transfer whole processing functions from one cloud to another within 30 minutes Advantages of the Inter-cloud approach - Individual operators can keep investment costs to a minimum. - Small and medium-sized operators will not be forced out of business. 2 stand-by facilities Cloud 1 Normal load 3 facilities Overload 4 facilities Use stand-by facilities of other carriers Cloud data center A Cloud 2 Cloud 3 Available to local businesses in the Tohoku region 1 stand-by facility 1 stand-by facility Boost disaster response capacity by Inter- clouds dispersed around remote regions Inter-Cloud Inter-Cloud test bed Cloud data center B Technology for instant switching based on validation using JGN-X Cloud data center C
ITU-T FG-DR&NRR Tokyo, Japan: “Technical Tour of SENDAI CITY” R&D Projects for Resilient Information and Communication Networks in Japan MIC and NICT of Japan are promoting R&D projects for realizing a resilient information and communication network. Please come up to Sendai and check them out on a technical tour on 8th February, 2013. Contact; Mr. Yasuo SHINOZAWA Deputy Director Technology Policy Division Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication E-mail: resilient-ICT@soumu.go.jp Project examples: Resource reallocation by dynamic control R&D for relieving service congestion in the mobile network caused by disaster Music Video File Voice Mail • Under a disaster, a vast amount of voice calls are made in mobile carrier networks and an unprecedented level of traffic (congestion) is generated. • New network technology applicable to current and next generation networks to relieve service congestion in the network will be explained. By design High priority service Rich media communications In a disaster R&D on the reconfigurable communication “resource unit” for disaster recovery • A “Resource Unit” which can meet the wide variety of communication demands under a disaster will be explained. • The “Resource Unit” can be transported by means such as a high-mobility vehicle, can be connected to surviving communication networks, and can reconfigure the damaged networks immediately. Developments of next generation VSATs effective for severe disasters • Even in the event of a destroyed ground communication infrastructure by disaster, easy and prompt establishment of satellite communications networks secures alternative communication paths. • New multimode VSATs that can connect to heterogeneous satellite systems using easy procedures in a disaster will be explained.