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Improving reading comprehension of severely struggling readers or non-readers. Presenters from Winthrop University Dr. Elke Schneider (Ph.D.) Ashley Costley Shannon Clayton Pam Wade. Presentation Outline. What is reading comprehension ?

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improving reading comprehension of severely struggling readers or non readers

Improving reading comprehension of severely struggling readers or non-readers

Presenters from Winthrop University

Dr. Elke Schneider (Ph.D.)

Ashley Costley

Shannon Clayton

Pam Wade

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • What is reading comprehension?
  • What causes non-reading or severe struggles with reading?
  • What strategies can we use that integrate balanced literacy and respect age and cognition differences?
  • Literature references
  • Questions?

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

what is reading comprehension
What is reading comprehension?
  • According to (Maria, 1990; Blachowicz & Ogle, 2001):
  • Ability to draw meaning/information from written text and its surrounding cues to
    • Draw inferences about implications, consequences, future events (science, social studies, ELA, math)
    • Find solutions to stated problems (math, science, ELA)
    • Learn information to retrieve for different types of tests (social studies, sciences, math)
    • Memorize for oral performance (theater)

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

what causes non reading and severe reading struggles
What causes non-reading and severe reading struggles?
  • Uncorrected or -able vision problems
    • Birth defects, genetically based
  • Cognitive overall deficits due to
    • Birth defects, disease, accident, psycho-emotional traumata (abuse), MR as part of other disability (e.g., spina biphida)
  • Cognitive deficits in the left hemisphere due to
    • Genetically based disability (e.g., dyslexia)
    • Environmentally induced (e.g., Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

causes basic brain hemisphere responsibilities for reading
LEFT HEMISPHERE

Details of letter/word shapes

Details of meaning

Details of sentence structures

Abstract meanings

and concepts

RIGHT HEMISPHERE

Global pictures

pictures

Main ideas, general flow of arguments

General layout of a text

Indirect messages when supported by pictures/gestures

Direct, concrete meanings, hands-on, processes

Causes:Basic brain hemisphere responsibilities for reading

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

what are effective remediation strategies
What are effective remediation strategies?
  • General considerations
  • Tap into strong learning channels (generally R-side) to accommodate weaker learning channels (generally L-side):
    • Practice attention to detail of letter patterns/ word patterns through detail on pictures
    • Using non-text picture books first, move to short text picture books -> increasingly more text with pictures -> newspaper with picture support -> texts/chapters w/o pictures

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

what are effective remediation strategies1
What are effective remediation strategies?
  • General considerations cont.
  • Moving from “easy” to more complex tasks so that student experiences the “I can do it!”
    • Picture interpretation: orally
    • Picture interpretation fluency: orally
    • Reading picture books with brief large print text (McClelland-Tiedt, 2000)
    • Reading Fluency practice with attention to punctuation of dialog-like text with picture cues

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

what are effective remediation strategies2
What are effective remediation strategies?
  • General considerations cont.
  • Moving from self-composed text to “other author-composed text (kinesthetic-tactile approach)
  • Writing progresses from phrases/keywords to complete sentences to advanced complex sentences on the premise that “what I can write I can understand when I read it”
  • Materials used are laminated sentence strips & dry erase markers, post-it notes + pencils, computer
    • Text for advertisement pictures & compare/contrast activ.
    • Text for pictures in picture books (post-it notes)
    • Text for newspaper pictures -> headlines

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 1
Strategies: Part 1
  • UTILIZE INTEREST IN ADVERTISING
    • Students predict content of ad-picture.
    • Students then see product.
    • Students write their ad for the product
    • Students compare their ad with the one from the magazine => authentic reading interest
    • Teacher must prepare any non-phonetic, unusual vocabulary in the magazine ad to assure success for struggling reader (see Henry, M. (2003) Unlocking literacy for prep. Ideas)
    • Teacher highlights 1 reading strategy that was effective other than predicting based on ad picture (which often is misleading in advertising on purpose)

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 2
Strategies: Part 2
  • UTILIZE INTEREST in natural speech & dramatic performance
    • Students see pictures of a book that has text BUT it is kept from them.
    • They first give it a try to create a dialogue for each scene.
    • The teacher assists in this stage with spelling and essential punctuation to mark intonation (not “..” yet)
    • 2 students work together and practice the dialogue until they can perform it with natural fluency.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 21
Strategies: Part 2
  • In this stage, the teacher provides the picture cues for each stage on OH so that entire class can follow;
  • After reading performance, students provide a reason for their dialogue content per scene (interpretation of non-verbal messages in characters)
  • Later, they compare it with the versions of their peers => reading different peers’ passages;
  • Once teacher has collected all the different versions for each of the dialog scenes, the students read/listen to the original book version

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 22
Strategies: Part 2
  • the task is then to compare that version with their version. Did they interpret the gestures differently? Did they use more complex language? How did that show?
  • Next comes the task to change their dialogue into different registers/ styles based on the dialogue
    • first colloquial (same age partners),
    • Then respectful of a person older than them (grandparent of a friend, person in neighborhood, a mentor, a coach),
    • then professionally formal (for a job interview with vocabulary and expressions essential for success in this setting)

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 3
Strategies: Part 3
  • UTILIZE INTEREST in CREATING something NEW - INDIVIDUAL
  • Students use 6-8 pictures and place them in a sequence that makes sense to them.
  • Based on that sequence, they give the story first oral, then written text using sentence strips of post-it notes.
  • Students retell story to different classmates and modify story based on feedback
  • Teacher encourages increasingly more complex sentence structures.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 31
Strategies: Part 3
  • Students read their story to individual peers & teacher.
  • Student then compares and contrasts his/her story with that in the actual book by designing a VENN diagram analysis.
  • This is first reflected on orally, then in writing in simple statements. The student reads his/her findings repeatedly to different classmates as they all compare their different analyses with the original author’s version.
  • Use of computer program Inspiration is motivating and encourages reading;

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 4
Strategies: Part 4
  • UTILIZE INTEREST in UNUSUAL PICTURES
  • Excellent resources: advertisement pictures, pictures from National Geographic magazines, and non-text books from authors like David Wiesner
  • Students learn that multiple interpretations of pictures are possible and that these can be expressed first in simple and then in increasingly more expanded ways.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 41
Strategies: Part 4

While good readers and writers are responsible for the text interpretation and writing of the entire book, struggling readers are responsible only for 1-2 pages. They turn out a story to read based on those 1-2 pages.

  • The drafting of ideas progresses from
    • using post it notes with phrases to
    • Using post t it notes with simple sentences
    • Using sentence strips to expand simple sentences to more complex ones that are attached with sticky tack to the book page or with transparency strips.
    • Digital photos can document the process.
    • Flip charts can be used to work out each stage as well to document for students how they moved from one stage to the next.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 42
Strategies: Part 4

Another practice with picture books for non-readers is to make them comfortable with specific types of sentences with specific structures by

  • Writing them for each picture and then having to read them out to peers in an attempt to compare and contrast all possible kinds of sentences for a set of pictures.
  • The structure elements of the sentence to be practiced is being highlighted through color coding.

EXAMPLES: QUESTIONS (playing detective): Why is the whale so close to shore? What is the black thing swimming on the surface there? When did it show up first? Under what circumstances…?

STATEMENTS in one sentence, in 2-part sentences with 1 conjunction (and, or but, yet) or 1 conjunction that shows one part as a dependent of the other (because, while): Because the black thing showed up, the whale came close to the shore.

LINKING STATEMENTS with TRANSITION WORDS that then are to be emphasized during reading. One hour ago, the black thing showed up on the surface. Then, the whale appeared.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

strategies part 43
Strategies: Part 4

EXAMPLES CONT.:

COMPARISON PATTERNS: as…as, ….-er than…, …-est of all…, most…. of all, more…. than any….

…looks as if….., appear like a….,

IDIOMS: acted like a bull in a china shop, had a sweet tooth

CLEFT SENTENCE: It is/was this…. that….

IF CLAUSE SENTENCES: If ……, ……would ….

WHEN CLAUSE: When…., …..

AFTER/BEFORE CLAUSE: After/before ……,

BECAUSE CLAUSE: Because …., …..

PREPOSITION CLAUSE: Under these circumstances, ….

On these conditions, …

For these reasons, ….

In this case, …

According to this author,

According to these pictures/this information,

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words

  • FLYLEAFPUBLISHING.com publications by Laura Appleton-Smith with picture cards for story telling and writing;
  • Lindsay Barrett George (2004). Inside Mouse, outside mouse. New York, NY: Greenwillow Books/Harper Collins.also as paperback
  • Dog Carl- series: wordless: Day , Alexandra (1997). Good Dog, Carl. New York, NY: Alladin Paperbacks.
  • Du Quette Keith (2002). They call me woolly. What animal names can tell us. New York, NY: Putnam Sons.
  • Freyman, Saxton & Elffers, Joost (1999). How are you peeling? Foods with moods. New York, NY: Scholastic.
  • Raschka, Chris (1993). Yo! Yes? New York, NY: Orchards Paperbacks.
  • Wiesner, D. (2006). Flotsam.New York, NY: Clarion Books.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references1
Literature References
  • Picture Books with no or few words cont.
  • Wiesner, D. (1999). Sector 7.Houghton Mifflin.
  • Wiesner, D. (1991). Tuesday. New York, NY: Clarion, 1991) ISBN 0-395-55113-7
  • Wiesner, D. (1988). Free Fall, Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books. ISBN 0-688-05583-4
  • Lehman, B. (2004). The red book.Houghton Mifflin ISBN 0-618-42858-5
  • FROM HERE ON: BOOKS in ALPHAB. ORDER, not by author:
  • Abstract Alphabet (Chronicle, 2001) Illus. by Paul Cox. ISBN 0-8118-2940-5
  • Anno's Journey (Philomel, 1978) Illus. by Anno. ISBN 0-399-20762-7
  • Anno's Spain (Philomel, 2004) Illus. by Anno. ISBN 0-399-24238-4

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references2
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words cont.

  • The Boy, The Bear, The Baron, The Bard (Roaring Brook, 2004) Illus. by Gregory Rogers. ISBN 1596430095
  • Changes, Changes (Macmillan, 1971) Illus. by Pat Hutchins. ISBN 0-02-745870-9
  • Clementina's Cactus (Viking, 1999) Illus. by Ezra Jack Keats. ISBN 0-670-88545-2
  • Clown (Holt, 1996) Illus. by Quentin Blake. ISBN 0-805-04399-3
  • A Day, A Dog (Front Street, 2000) Illus. by Gabrielle Vincent. ISBN 1-886910-51-0
  • Deep in the Forest (Dutton, 1976) Illus. by Brinton Turkle. ISBN 0-525-28617-9
  • Dinosaur! (HarperCollins, 2000)Illus. by Peter Sís. ISBN 0-688-17049-8

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references3
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words cont.

  • Do You Want to be My Friend? (Philomel, 1988) Illus. by Eric Carle. ISBN 0-399-21598-0
  • Follow Carl! (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1998) Illus. by Alexandra Day. ISBN 0-374-34380-2
  • The Forty-Six Little Men (HarperCollins, 1991) Illus. by Jan Mogensen. ISBN 0-688-09283-7
  • Four Hungry Kittens (Dial, 1996) Illus. by Emily Arnold McCully. ISBN 0-8037-2505-1
  • Freight Train (Morrow, 1978) Illus. by Donald Crews. ISBN 0-688-80165-X
  • Good Night, Garden Gnome (Dial, 2001) Illus. by Jamichael Henterly. ISBN 0-8037-2531-0
  • The Grey Lady and the Strawberry Snatcher (Simon & Schuster, 1980) Illus. by Molly Bang. ISBN 0-02-708140-0

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references4
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words cont.

  • Home (Greenwillow, 2004)Illus. by Jeannie Baker ISBN 0-06-623935-4
  • Island Dog (Two Dog Press, 1999) Illus. by Rebecca Goodale. ISBN 1-89109-003-8
  • Little Star (Hyperion, 2003)Illus. by Antonin Louchard. ISBN 0-7868-1939-1
  • Magpie Magic: A Tale of Colorful Mischief (Putnam, 1999) Illus. by April Wilson. ISBN 0-8037-2354-7
  • Midnight Adventures of Kelly, Dot, and Esmeralda (McElderry, 1999) Illus. by John S. Goodall. ISBN 0-689-82564-1
  • Mysteries of Harris Burdick (Houghton Mifflin, 1984) Illus. by Chris Van Allsburg
  • An Ocean World (HarperCollins, 1992) Illus. by Peter Sis. ISBN 0-688-09067-2

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references5
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words cont.

  • Oh! (Abrams, 2000) Illus. by Josse Goffin. ISBN 0-810-93660-7
  • Pancakes for Breakfast (Harcourt Brace, 1990) Illus. by Tomie de Paola. ISBN 0-15-259455-8
  • Peep! (Peachtree, 2003) Illus. by Kevin Luthardt. ISBN 1-56145-046-4
  • Rain (Doubleday, 1982) Illus. by Peter Spier. ISBN 0-385-15484-4
  • Re-Zoom (Viking, 1995) Illus. by Istvan Banyai. ISBN 0-670-86392-0
  • The Red Balloon.
  • The Ring (HarperCollins, 1996) Illus. by Lisa Maizlish. ISBN 0-688-14217-6
  • Silent Night (Antheneum, 2001) Illus. by Sandy Turner. ISBN 0-689-84156-6

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references6
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words cont.

  • Sidewalk Circus (Candlewick Press, 2004) Presented by Paul Fleischman and Kevin Hawkes. ISBN 0-7636-1107-7
  • A Small Miracle (Random House, 1997) Illus. by Peter Collington. ISBN 0-679-88725-3
  • The Snowman (Random House, 1986) Illus. by Raymond Briggs. ISBN 0-394-93973-5
  • Tabby: A Story in Pictures (HarperCollins, 1995) Illus. by Aliki. ISBN 0-06-024915-3
  • Time Flies (Random House, 1994) Illus. by Eric Rohmann. ISBN 0-517-59598-2
  • The Tooth Fairy (Alfred A (Knopf, 1995) Illus. by Peter Collington. ISBN 0-679-97168-8
  • Tuba Lessons (Creative Editions, 1997) Illus. by Monique Felix. ISBN 0-152-01643-0

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references7
Literature References

A.Picture Books with no or few words cont.

  • Window (Greenwillow, 1991)Illus. by by Jeannie Baker. ISBN 0-688-08918-6
  • Why? (North-South, 1996)Illus. by Nikolai Popov. ISBN 1-55858-534-6
  • The Yellow Balloon (Front Street, 2003) Illus. by Charlotte Dematons. ISBN 1-932425-01-2
  • Yellow Umbrella (Kane/Miller, 2002)Illus. by Jae-Soo Lui. ISBN 1-929132-36-0
  • Zoom (Viking, 1995) Illus. by Istvan Banyai. ISBN 0-670-85804-8
  • TANA HOBAN BOOKS on shapes, colors, numbers: good for compare-contrast language support orally in reading and in writing; completely textless; originally for K-3 BUT pictures can be used for challenging text patterns;

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references8
Literature References

B. Simple-word powerful Poetry

  • Shel Silverstein poems or Jack Prelutzky poems = age-neutral
  • (2004)Secrets of serenity by Running Press [www.runningpress.com](or any other short poems about life philosophical ideas)
  • Poetry by Mattie J. T. Stepanek
    • (2002). Journey through heartsongs. New York, NY: Hyperion Books.
    • (2001). Heartsongs. New York, NY: Hyperion Books.Any of

C. Picture Books for Middle School reference:

  • McClellan Tiedt, I. (2000). Teaching with picture books in middle school. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007

literature references9
Literature References

D. Selected Research Support

  • Blachowitcz, C. & Ogle, D. (2001). Reading Comprehension. Strategies for independent learners.New York, NY: Guildford Press.
  • Culham, R. (2004). Using picture books to teach writing wirh the traits. An annotated bibliography of more than 200 titles with teacher tested lessons. New York, NY: Scholastic.
  • Maria, K. (1991). Reading Comprehension Instruction. Issues and Strategies. Parkton, MD: York Press (now ProEd)
  • Sheppard, R. Ruebel, K, Sheppard, K., Stratton, B. & Zigo, D. (2004). Using Literature to connect young adolescent concerns through the curriculum.Westerville, OH: National Middle School Association.

SC CEC Conference Myrtle Beach, Feb. 2007