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Treaty of Versailles

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Treaty of Versailles. Countries at the Treaty France Uruguay Siam Rumania Poland Panama Liberia China Bolivia Japan India Czechoslovakia. US Italy Belgium Brazil Cuba Greece Hedjaz Ecuador. Haiti Peru Portugal Serbia New Zealand South Africa Australia Canada

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Countries at the Treaty

  • France
  • Uruguay
  • Siam
  • Rumania
  • Poland
  • Panama
  • Liberia
  • China
  • Bolivia
  • Japan
  • India
  • Czechoslovakia
  • US
  • Italy
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Cuba
  • Greece
  • Hedjaz
  • Ecuador
  • Haiti
  • Peru
  • Portugal
  • Serbia
  • New Zealand
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Great Britain

In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiate the Treaty. Lloyd George of Britain, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.

The biggest problem was who was not there.


German Losses in the West

  • France got back from Germany: Alsace-Lorraine was returned.
  • Belgium got from Germany: Moresnet, Eupen, and Malmedy—not a lot of land, but it was something.
  • France got the Saar, also known as Saarland (part of Germany, with an important coalfield) for 15 years. After 15 years a referendum (plebiscite) would be held to decide which country the Saar would join.
  • The left bank of the Rhine (the Rhineland) was to be occupied by an international administration, led by the Allies, for fifteen years. The right bank of the Rhine (50 km wide) was to be demilitarized. No forts, army bases, weapons or soldiers were to be allowed into the region.

German Losses in the East

  • You make up your mind: Upper Silesia, East Prussia, Schlieswig—all German territories were given the opportunity to decide which nation they wanted to be part of via a plebiscite.
  • Poland got parts of Silesia were given to Poland
  • The newly created Czechoslovakia got other parts of Silesia.
  • Poland, broken up as a nation since the late 18th century, was made independent and given a corridor to the Baltic Sea. This Polish “corridor” cut off East Prussia from the rest of Germany. Germany gave most of Posen and West Prussia to Poland.

Germany Loses its Colonies

  • Germany was to lose all of its colonies, which were to be divided among the victors.
    • Tanganyika was given to Britain
    • the Cameroon to France
    • South-West Africa to South Africa
    • the Pacific Islands controlled by Germany were given to Japan
    • South Pacific islands were given to New Zealand and Australia.

Europe has more Independent Nations

  • Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia--formerly part of Russia--were made independent countries.
  • Czechoslovakia, formerly part of Austria-Hungary, was made an independent country.
  • Romania was enlarged, taking the province of Transylvania, formerly part of Hungary.
  • Greece, Belgium and Denmark all received small pieces of land from the defeated countries.

More Independent Places

  • Austria and Hungary were made into two separate countries.
  • Yugoslavia was created as an independent country out of a much enlarged Serbia.
  • Danzig, a city with both Polish and German citizens was placed under international rule (under the control of the League of Nations) as a 'free city,' largely for Polish use.

The German army was to be a maximum of 100,000 men. There could be no draft and no reserve army.

  • All wartime guns and weapons were to be melted down to scrap metal. Germany is forbidden to manufacture heavy artillery, tanks, military airplanes, poison gas, vessels over 100,000 tons, submarines, etc.
  • The German Navy (once second only to Britain) was to be reduced to 36 ships. No U-boats are permitted. Germany’s Air Force is to be destroyed.

How do we make sure that Germany doesn’t try this again?

  • Germany was forbidden to have an alliance or unite with Austria ever again (Anschluss)
  • All German rivers were to be internationalized
  • German Military to be strictly controlled

Economic Concessions

  • Germany is to pay $5 billion in reparations within two years and unspecified sums later. A bill for all civilian damages would be presented by the Allies to Germany in 1921. The majority of the funds would go to France and Belgium. In the end, Germany was asked for $33 billion.
  • Germany is to bear the entire cost of Allied occupation.
  • Germany is to build 200,000 tons of shipping for victors annually for five years. It is to give to the Allies all merchant ships over 1600 tons and a quarter of her fishing fleet.
  • Germany was forced to supply livestock to the French and Belgian governments.


  • Under Article 231 (the “war guilt clause”), Germany had to accept full and total blame for starting and continuing the war.
  • “The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.''
  • The former German emperor (Kaiser Wilhelm II) and other offenders were to be tried. (However, the Kaiser had escaped to The Netherlands in 1918 and the Dutch would not release him. He dies in 1941, during the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands.)

Consequence of Treaty

  • The League of Nations was
  • founded.
  • 3 Aims of the League
  • To Maintain Peace
  • To Promote Social Welfare
  • To Promote Disarmament