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Remote Disk Access with NFS. Vicki Insixiengmay Jonathan Krieger. NFS Background. Developed inside Sun Microsystems in early 1980’s Based on 2 similar but distinct protocols MOUNT  Initial Negotiation between Server and Client Determines which file systems are available for mounting

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remote disk access with nfs

Remote Disk Access with NFS

Vicki Insixiengmay

Jonathan Krieger

nfs background
NFS Background
  • Developed inside Sun Microsystems in early 1980’s
  • Based on 2 similar but distinct protocols
    • MOUNT Initial Negotiation between Server and Client
      • Determines which file systems are available for mounting
    • NFS Allows Client to Utilize Files in Directory
nfs description
NFS Description
  • Network File System(NFS)
    • An abbreviation for Network File System, a file format and set of drivers created by Sun Microsystems Incorporated that allows DOS/Windows and UNIX applications to share files on disk drives running under UNIX. NFS relies on remote procedure calls (RPCs) for communication between clients and servers.
  • Allows any network user to access disk space over a networks.
  • Incorporates with NIS to access specific file folders for each user
important nfs concepts
Important NFS Concepts
  • Virtual File System (VFS) – transparently and automatically redirects for mounted files to the server
  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) – used for background mounting of a folder with a file system
  • Hard Mounting – Continuously trying to remount a file system
  • Soft Mounting – Repeated RPC failures cause the NFS to fail and not hang
important nfs daemons
Important NFS Daemons
  • portmap – manages connections for applications that use the RPC specification
  • nfs – starts necessary RPC processes
  • nfslock – allows clients to lock files within the NFS file system
  • netfs – allows processes running on the client to mount an NFS file system
installing nfs
Installing NFS
  • RedHat Linux installs NFS by default
    • Automatically activated when system boots
  • To check:
    • rpm –qa | grep nfs
  • If list is empty, one needs to installed
configuring nfs on the server
Configuring NFS on the Server
  • Needs
    • portmap
    • nfs
    • nfslock
  • Correctly configured /etc/exports file
configuring the etc exports file
Configuring the /etc/exports file
  • Main NFS configuration file
  • 2 columns:
    • 1st Directories made available on the network
    • 2nd Networks or DNS domains that can access the directories and options
  • Options include:
    • ro, rw, no_root_squash, no_subtree_check, sync
the etc exports file
The /etc/exports file

#/etc/exports

/public 134.198.161.101(rw, sync, no_root_squash)

/public 134.198.161.102(rw, sync, no_root_squash)

/public 134.198.161.103(rw, sync, no_root_squash)

/public 134.198.161.104(rw, sync, no_root_squash)

/public 134.198.161.254(rw, sync, no_root_squash)

  • NFS Users Control Panel in Linux
starting nfs on the server
Starting NFS on the Server
  • Configure required daemons

chkconfig –level 35 nfs on

chkconfig –level 35 nfslock on

chkconfig –level 35 portmap on

  • Use /etc/init.d to start daemons

service portmap start

service nfs start

service nfslock start

  • Test NFS

rpcinfo –p localhost

starting nfs on the client
Starting NFS on the Client
  • Configure required daemons

chkconfig –level 35 netfs on

chkconfig –level 35 nfslock on

chkconfig –level 35 portmap on

  • Use /etc/init.d to start daemons

service portmap start

service netfs start

service nfslock start

  • Test NFS

rpcinfo –p

nfs and dns
NFS and DNS
  • NFS client must have a matching pair of forward and reverse DNS entries
  • DNS lookup on NFS server for IP address of NFS client must return server name mapping back to original IP address

host 134.198.161.103

host 134-198-161-103.research.cs.uofs.edu

nfs directory mounting permanent
NFS Directory Mounting -- Permanent
  • Insert line into /etc/fstab file

#/etc/fstab

#Directory Mount Point Type Options Dump FSCK

.103:/public /home nfs defaults 0 0

  • Create mount directory

mkdir /home

  • Mount onto directory into new directory

mount -a

nfs directory mounting temporary
NFS Directory Mounting -- Temporary
  • No needed /etc/fstab entry

mkdir /home

ls /home

mount –t nfs 134.198.161.103:/public /home

ls /home

deleting a share
Deleting a Share
  • Removing an exported directory from /etc/exports
  • Client Side:

umount /home

  • Server Side:

Exportfs –ua

Exportfs -a

problems
Problems
  • After installing NFS on lab3…
    • Lab3  mounted
    • Others  NFS on
  • Errors
    • port 22: No route to host
    • Permission denied, server is down
  • Firewall Problems
problems1
Problems
  • Installing NFS on Gateway
    • Running FreeBSD
    • Inserted into rc.conf file

nfs_client_enable = “YES”

  • Source

http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-nfs.html

references
References
  • www.linuxdocs.org
  • www.linuxhomenetworking.com
  • www.freebsd.org
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