source criticism and the synoptic problem l.
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Source Criticism and the Synoptic Problem. The Biblical Warrant for Source Criticism: Luke 1:1-4. Luke tells us clearly that there were many other gospels (1:1). Luke tells us that these attempts were according to the early oral traditions (1:2).

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the biblical warrant for source criticism luke 1 1 4
The Biblical Warrant for Source Criticism: Luke 1:1-4.
  • Luke tells us clearly that there were many other gospels (1:1).
  • Luke tells us that these attempts were according to the early oral traditions (1:2).
slide3
Luke numbers himself among the many and decides to investigate his sources and write an orderly account.
  • We can surmise that the other gospels writers used the same procedures.
  • Source criticism is nothing more than the attempt to discover from Luke and the other gospel writers their sources, with a view to better understanding their intentions.
general solutions to the synoptic problem
General Solutions to the Synoptic Problem
  • One can argue that the three gospels are totally independent of each other and that similarities are either coincidental or providential.
  • One can argue that the three are related only because all have used common oral traditions .
slide5
One can argue that there is a literal relationship between the three, that one or two or three have copied from each other.
  • At this point let me briefly state that one's position on this issue is not determined by one's view of inspiration unless that view be mechanical dictation.
the answer
The Answer
  • Note that one’s answer must fulfill:
  • Linguistic Choices
  • Selection of Material Choices
  • Choices of Order of Material
the augustinian hypothesis
The Augustinian Hypothesis.
  • Proponents: Augustine,
  • The Basic Solution: Matthew was first, Mark used Matthew
the griesbach hypothesis
The Griesbach Hypothesis
  • Proponents: J.J. Griesbach, W.R. Farmer
  • Basic Solution: Matthew was first, Luke was second and used Matthew, Mark was last and used both Matthew and Luke.
slide11
Proponents: B.H. Streeter, The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins
  • Basic Solution: Mark was first, Matthew was second and used Mk and Q, Luke was last and used Mark and Q. Both Matthew and Luke also had access to another source, called M and L respectively.
  • Dominance: many scholars, even to this day, will speak of this solution as one "assured result" of gospel studies.
mark q m l matthew luke
Mark QM LMatthew Luke
the farrer hypothesis
The Farrer Hypothesis
  • Proponents: Austin Farrer, "On Dispensing with Q," in D.E. Nineham, Studies in the Gospels: Essays in Memory of R.H. Lightfoot (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1955), pp. 55-88.
  • Basic Solution: Mark was first, Matthew was second and used Mark, Luke was last and used both Matthew and Mark.
some important arguments for a modified oxford hypothesis
Some Important Arguments for a Modified Oxford Hypothesis
  • The Case for Markan Priority.
  • Shared Content:
  • Wording:
  • Order:
  • Primitivity:
  • Expansion Tendency:
  • Success:
slide17
The Case for Q: whether written or oral, or mixed.
  • Wording:
  • Order:
  • Doublets:
  • Independence of Matt and Luke:
  • Nature:
some concluding observations
Some Concluding Observations
  • We will assume for the rest of the semester the general reliability of the Two/Four-Source Hypothesis.
  • We must remember that the relationship was probably much more complex than we can trace with any degree of certainty.
  • In the actual composition of each Gospel such factors as oral traditions, other written sources (cf. Lk 1:1-4), and redactional alterations are all at work.