SECTION SIX SIMPLE MACHINES HAVE MANY USES. 14.2 Reinforcing Key Concepts

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SECTION SIX SIMPLE MACHINES HAVE MANY USES. 14.2 Reinforcing Key Concepts - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

SECTION SIX SIMPLE MACHINES HAVE MANY USES. 14.2 Reinforcing Key Concepts BIG IDEA Machines help people work by changing the force applied to an object. KEY CONCEPT Six simple machines have many uses. screw. wheel and axle. lever. inclined plane. pulley. wedge.

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SECTIONSIX SIMPLE MACHINES HAVE MANY USES.

14.2 Reinforcing Key Concepts

BIG IDEA Machines help people work by changing the force applied to an object.

KEY CONCEPT Six simple machines have many uses.

screw

wheel and axle

lever

inclined plane

pulley

wedge

Identify each simple machine and describe how that machine affects the input force or output force when doing work._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

a) A small input force is applied over a long distance.

b) Turning the wheel a greater distance requires less input force from your hand. The axle inside of the door moves a smaller distance, which gives greater output force.

c) The bottle opener is a 2nd class lever that creates greater output force.

screw

wheel and axle

lever

wedge

inclined plane

pulley

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d) The inclined plane decreases input force by applying it over a larger area.

e) The ax is a wedge that increases input force by applying it to a smaller area.

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f) A single fixed pulley changes the direction (not the size) of a force.

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2. The mechanical advantage of a machine can be calculated. The mechanical advantage of a machine compares output force with input force. It can be equal to, greater than, or less than 1. Explain why each situation below would result in the mechanical advantage given.
• A single fixed pulley is used to raise a large box. Mechanical Advantage = 1.

The force needed to pull down on the rope is the same force needed to support the weight of the box. The input force and output force are equal, and a number divided by itself is 1. The pulley changes only the direction of the force.

b. A baseball player exerts a large force on his bat in order to move the end of the bat at a high speed. Mechanical Advantage < 1.

The force the player applies on the bat is larger than the force the bat applies on the ball. Therefore, the input force is greater than the output force. A smaller number divided by a greater number is always less than 1.