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uriel-bradshaw
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Newspapers

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  1. Newspapers Reflection of a Democratic Society

  2. Inventing the Modern Press • Martin Luther and John Calvin: • published newspaper-like broadsheets in the 1500s • Newspapers first appeared in England in the 1620s.

  3. Publick Occurrence: • first newspaper in the American colonies (1690) • Boston News Letter: • first to publish multiple issues (1704)

  4. Benjamin and James Franklin • James started the New England Courant in 1721: • first newspaper published without approval of the British government

  5. 16-year-old Benjamin takes over after James is jailed. • Benjamin Franklin purchased the Pennsylvania Gazette in 1729: • featured first political cartoon • introduced the weather report as a regular feature

  6. The Penny Press: Newspapers for the People • Before 1830s, papers contained shipping news and political essays. • designed primarily for the wealthy elite • underwritten by political parties • expensive, as much as 6 cents a day • Average worker might make 85 cents a day • available only by annual subscription, paid in advance

  7. Penny Press (cont.) • September 3, 1833—Benjamin Day begins publishing the New York Sun:

  8. paper’s motto was “It shines for all” • inexpensive, sold for a penny or two on the street • derived the name penny press • profits came primarily from advertising revenue • invented the concept of “news”

  9. A Modern Democratic Society • Increase in number of papers in just a decade: • In 1830—650 weeklies and 65 dailies in the United States • In 1840—1,241 weeklies and 138 dailies • Changes wrought by industrial revolution: • Shift from rural to urban, agricultural to industrial society • People working for wages, purchasing consumer goods • Penny press—provided means for advertising these goods

  10. Pulitzer, Hearst, and the Battle for New York City • Joseph Pulitzer came to the United States from Austria in 1864 to fight in U.S. Civil War • in 1878, bought the St. Louis Post and Dispatch

  11. in 1883, bought the failing New York World • boosted circulation from 15,000 to more than 250,000 in 3 years • credited with shaping the modern front page • featured prominent stories “above the fold” • reached out to women and immigrant readers • established Pulitzer Prize

  12. William Randolph Hearst • began career as editor of the San Francisco Examiner • purchased the New York Journal • used ideas developed by Pulitzer in his paper • fierce battle between Pulitzer and Hearst

  13. Yellow journalism—shocking, sensationalistic reporting derived from the Pulitzer-Hearst rivalry • name derived from popular “Yellow Kid” comic • featured in both Pulitzer’s and Hearst’s papers.

  14. The Newspaper Business • Newspaper Conglomerates • 1,500 daily newspapers • down 25 percent from 100 years ago • Chains—corporations that control a significant number of newspapers or other media outlets • Before World War II—80 percent of newspapers were owned independently • Today—80 percent owned by chains

  15. Gannett: • chain with the largest circulation (USA Today) • owns more than 90 daily newspapers • combined circulation of approximately 7.3 million • goals as high as 30 to 40 percent profit

  16. National Newspapers • USA Today (1982): • “McPaper” serving up “News McNuggets” • lost more than $800 million in first decade • is found everywhere • changed the look of newspapers industry-wide • forced the industry to reconsider news priorities • 2.3 million daily circulation

  17. The Wall Street Journal: • retains old-fashioned look • last major paper to start using color • uses pen-and-ink drawings over photos • the definitive source of financial news • heavy national and international news coverage • daily circulation of 2 million

  18. The Christian Science Monitor (1908): • owned by the Christian Science church • started by Mary Baker Eddy • “appeal to the literate, concerned and moral citizen” • cover serious issues, especially international stories • downplays news about medicine and health • 72,000 daily circulation

  19. English-Language International Newspapers • International Herald Tribune (1887): • published in Paris, distributed in 180 countries • Financial Times: • owned by Pearson companies • primarily a business newspaper • The Wall Street Journal: • publishes European and Asian editions

  20. The Metropolitan Press • The New York Times: • most influential newspaper in United States • 1.1 million daily subscribers • one third of them live outside of New York City • bought by Adolf Ochs in 1896 • nicknamed “Gray Lady” • on October 16, 1997, used color photos on front page

  21. The Metropolitan Paper (cont.) • The Washington Post: • Watergate created a national reputation • reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein / editor Bill Bradlee

  22. The Metropolitan Paper (cont.) • The Los Angeles Times: • gaining national reputation as solid paper • mainstreaming—quoting nonwhite and nonmale sources in stories that aren’t about minority issues • can cause confusion with reporters • policy established to reach out to minority readers

  23. The Tabloids • Tabloid newspapers: • feature 11x14 inch format • usually have a cover rather than a front page • Broadsheet newspapers: • feature 17 by 22 format • Examples of Tabloids: • The New York Daily News: • big photos, huge headlines, sensationalistic stories • January 13, 1928 cover featuring Ruth Snyder’s execution

  24. Community and Suburban Papers • Community press—weekly and daily newspapers serving individual communities or suburbs • rely on Web presence • 1,100 daily, 1,200 nondaily community papers in United States • loyal readers • stories not being covered nationally

  25. News and Society • News characteristics: • timeliness • proximity • prominence • consequence • rarity • human interest

  26. News and Society (cont.) • Sources, advertisers and readers: • editors increasingly looking to appeal to advertisers • surrounding news stories with similar ads • Patriotism and the press • 2006—92 journalists have died in Iraq since March 2003 • 2006 alone—32 killed in Iraq, 23 internationally • targets: deliberately murdered (Daniel Pearl)

  27. Daniel Pearl

  28. The Alternative Press Alternative papers—serve specialized audiences: • Freedom’s Journal (1827): • “Black citizens were humans who were being treated unjustly” • North Star (1847): • Frederick Douglass, editor • pushed for end of slavery, black rights • Chicago Defender (1905): • profit as well as advocacy • urged southern blacks to move north

  29. Rev Samuel Cornish (L)John B. Russwurm

  30. The Gay Press: • The Washington Blade (1969) • promotes gay causes, highlights problems • Gay City News (New York City) • purchased by a straight-owned company in 2002 • targeted a gay audience for profit, no longer for only the promotion of gay culture • Underground Papers: • attract young people • being bought up by chains

  31. The Future of Newspapers • Are newspapers a dying medium? • major urban papers: losing circulation, staff cutbacks • afternoon papers first casualty historically • Falling circulation figures: • in 2005, circulation fell 2.6 percent for dailies • it fell 3.1 percent for Sunday papers • convenience factor still strong

  32. The future of newspapers (cont.) • Newspapers and the Web: • breaking news—news story that requires frequent updating • Web allows for easy updating • Breaking news online • role of Dallas Morning News • Oklahoma City Bombing, Clinton-Lewinsky stories broke online first • advantages/problems of online publishing

  33. The future of newspapers (cont.) • What the Web offers newspapers: • good at presenting interactive features on breaking news • Pew Research Center for the People and the Press: • roughly 30 percent of people use Internet for news on a regular basis • more turn to network sites rather than paper sites • Importance of new technologies and formats: • podcasts • PDA-designed versions • blogs

  34. http://www.nytimes.com/ • http://www.washingtonpost.com/ • http://www.latimes.com/