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Ioannis Karakitsios , Timur Saliev , Helen McLeod, Sarfraz Ahmad , Andreas Melzer Institute for Medical Science & Technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom. Explanted Thiel Embalmed Human Liver as a Model to Study MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery.
IoannisKarakitsios, TimurSaliev, Helen McLeod, Sarfraz Ahmad, Andreas Melzer Institute for Medical Science & Technology, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
Explanted Thiel Embalmed Human Liver as a Model to Study
MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery
Background: MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a useful method to ablate tumours noninvasively [1,2]. Treatment of liver disease is a very demanding treatment process with high death rates . Studies on animals and human patients under general anaesthesia have reported the feasibility and accuracy of MRgFUS to coagulate tumour [4,5]. Thiel embalming is used to preserve human cadavers, giving the bodies a high degree of flexibility and life-like characteristics.
Objectives: The focus of our study was to determine whether explanted Thiel embalmed human liver constitutes a reliable model for studying MRgFUS. For that purpose, the temperatures of the heated Thiel tissue were compared to the temperatures of fresh animal tissue.
Methods: Four explanted livers: two fresh sheep livers and two Thiel embalmed human livers were scanned with MRI (1.5 T HDxt, GE Healthcare, USA) using Fast Spoiled Gradient Echo (FSPGR) imaging with TE: Minimum, TR: 60 msec, Flip Angle: 30o and acquisition matrix 256x256. The organs were heated for 20 sec with Focused Ultrasound (FUS) (ExAblate 2000, InSightec Ltd., Israel) at various acoustic energies: 253, 506 and 709 Joules. Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF) MR Thermometry was applied for temperature monitoring. Post-sonication maximum temperature values of the animal liver and Thiel human liver were compared.
Results: Table shows the average value of the maximum temperatures after MRgFUS treatment of fresh animal liver and Thiel embalmed human liver at various acoustic energies, and their difference
Conclusions: MRgFUS treatment of Thiel embalmed human liver at energies >506 J can induce tumour ablation with temperatures >56oC. There was a good correlation between temperatures achieved in the Thiel embalmed tissue and the temperatures in the fresh animal tissue. In overall, Thiel embalmed human liver constitutes a feasible, safe and reliable model to study MRgFUS treatment, ex vivo.
Acknowledgements: Project FUSIMO (“Patient specific modelling and simulation of focused ultrasound in moving organs”) funded under the EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.
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