Unit Six Gender
Gender Roles • Gender roles - widely accepted societal expectations about how males and females behave • biological & social factors • Gender Stereotypes - oversimplified beliefs about the ways men and women should behave • http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2013/08/30/217228618/modifying-the-dollhouse-exposing-girls-to-tech-through-play
Answer the following questions: Re. the reading 1. What does the article imply about gender norms in Latin America vs. the Middle East? 2. Are there any gender stereotypes expressed in the article? What are they? 3. What is the author’s argument about sexism? 4. Based on their evidence, do you buy into their argument? 5. As a group, do you believe that sexism is prevailing issue in the United States? Why? 6. Are all sex stereotypes bad? Why?
1. Warm ups 2. Chpt. 12 vocab 3. Erikson Chart (copied from slides) 4. Defense Mechanism Half-sheet worksheet
Write on Separate sheet (no names) -True or False: I can remember wanting to play with a toy that was not associated with my gender. -True or False: I have been told outright that I could not do something because of my gender. -True or False: I have had to suppress a certain emotion because to express that emotion in public would not be "manly" or "ladylike" or otherwise in keeping with my gender. -True or False: I have judged someone else because their actions "didn't fit" with their gender. -True or False: I have had other people judge me because they thought my actions "didn't fit" with my gender.
Warm up • Based on the survey, do you believe role expectations have shaped who you are? ‘ • If so, how? If not, why? • Do you think you would be any different if the pressures of conforming to gender role expectations didn’t exist? • If so, how? If not, why not?
Gender Differences • Physical • Primary and Secondary sex traits • Primary are what determines if you are male or female • Secondary based on the amount of sex hormones you have
Gender Differences • Cognitive Abilities • tests show no differences in cognitive ability based on gender • Gender Stereotypes can affect this: • women feel more confident with language abilities • men feel more confident with mathematics ability
Gender Differences • Aggression • studies suggest men are more aggressive than women physically • women prefer indirect forms of aggression • think Mean Girls
Gender Differences • Communication styles • statistically women talk less in mixed-sex groups • men more likely to introduce new topics and interrupt others • women talk more about feelings and personal experience than men
Gender Differences • Mate selection • men place more emphasis on physical appearance • women look for traits of compatibility • Why are they different? • successful reproduction? • genders are socialized differently? • Differences are cultural/environmental not biological
Gender Typing • Gender typing - process by which people learn to conform to gender roles • Biological • genetics • traits common to men and women tend to lead to reproduction • the species can continue • hormones • different hormones for gender dictate behavior • sex hormones can change brain structure • change in estrogen and testosterone levels can change behavior
Gender Typing • Psychological • psychoanalytic • Freud - identify with parent of the same sex • seek attention from parent of opposite sex • Social-Learning Theory • reinforcement • rewards when act according gender roles • modeling • kids learning by watching others • Bandura (Bobo)
Gender Typing • Gender-Schema Theory • a child learns to classify male and female gender roles and by which the child models and measures his or her own relation to those roles