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Unit 1 Review. 2013-14. Laws/Treaties/Protocols. Clean Air Acts Kyoto Protocol Endangered Species Act National Environmental Policy Act Stockholm Declaration. If the ice cap at the North Pole continues to shrink, which of the following is NOT a likely outcome?

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laws treaties protocols
  • Clean Air Acts
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Endangered Species Act
  • National Environmental Policy Act
  • Stockholm Declaration

If the ice cap at the North Pole continues to shrink, which of the following is NOT a likely outcome?

A. Polar bears could decline or become extinct.

B. Seal populations would likely increase.

C. Indigenous people would lose a food source.

D. Arctic fox populations would be negatively affected.

E. Penguin populations would increase.


Which of the following molecules is NOT considered a greenhouse gas?

A. Chlorofluorocarbon

B. Methane

C. Ozone

D. Nitrogen

E. Carbon Dioxide


Which of the following greenhouse gases does NOT exist naturally?

A. Chlorofluorocarbons

B. Ozone

C. Carbon dioxide

D. Methane

E. Nitrous oxide


A greenhouse gas that results from natural anaerobic processes (decomposition) typically associated with saturated soil conditions found in wetlands would be:

A. nitrogen gas

B. methane

C. hydrogen sulfide

D. ozone

E. chlorofluorocarbon


Global dimming is a phenomenon whereby incoming solar energy is reflected back into space prior to hitting the Earth’s surface. A non-anthropogenic source of this dimming could be from:

A. soot from coal fired power plants

B. heightened volcanic ash in the atmosphere

C. decreased reflectivity of snow and ice from particulates

D. forests burned for conversion to agriculture

E. methane emission from livestock


Which of the following nations is responsible for the most carbon emissions on an annual basis?

A. China

B. Russia

C. India

D. Germany

E. United States


An approach to combating global warming by removing already-emitted greenhouse gas is termed:

A. thermal stratification

B. carbon disassociation

C. carbon sequestration

D. cogeneration

E. methanogenesis


Soils contain a large amount of stored carbon. The current and expected increase in temperature is likely to stimulate a positive feedback mechanism driven by

A. loss of groundwater recharge

B. increased plant growth

C. soil salinization

D. heightened soil erosion

E. increased activity of decomposers


An indirect anthropogenic release of methane is manifested by:

A. increased wind farm activity in the northern latitudes

B. melting of arctic permafrost

C. reduced tropical deforestation

D. greater concentration of atmospheric soot

E. decreased termite activity


In which of the following years did temperatures increase in the northern hemisphere, but decrease in the southern hemisphere?

A. 1930

B. 1900

C. 2000

D. 1990

E. 1960


In the last 10 years, there has been a clear differentiation between northern and southern temperature increases. For the most recent data shown on the graph, the northern hemisphere increase is what percent of the southern temperature increase?

A. 130%

B. 100%

C. 60%

D. 75%

E. 230%


Which of the following natural disasters in the United States can be at least partly attributed to global warming?

A. hurricane Katrina

B. Love Canal

C. Exxon Valdez Oil spill

D. Eruption of Mount St. Helens

E. Gulf Oil spill


In some cases, increased global temperatures have caused an extension in growing seasons and thus annual primary productivity. Which of the following would be most likely to cause this trend to cease?

A. greater supply of genetically modified organisms

B. higher amounts of grazing by herbivores

C. build up of soil organic matter driven by decomposition

D. increased crop yield by humans

E. loss of soil moisture because of heightened evaporation and lower regional precipitation


Between 400,000 and 10,000 years ago, the highest CO2 concentration was approximately

A. 290 ppm D. 380 ppm

B. 180 ppm E. 320 ppm

C. 200 ppm


The difference between the present observed carbon dioxide concentration and the concentration 400,000 years ago is closest to:

A. 35 ppm D. 120 ppm

B. 90 ppm E. 60 ppm

C. 20 ppm


What is the approximate percent increase between carbon dioxide levels 150,000 years ago and carbon dioxide levels in 2010?

A. 100% D. 50%

B. 75% E. 150%

C. 25%


Over the last million years, glacial periods lasting about ____ years have alternated with interglacial periods lasting about ____.

A. 10,000 . . . 1,000 D. 10,000 . . . 100,000

B. 1,000 . . . 100,000 E. 10,000 . . . 10,000

C. 1,000 . . . 10,000


An organismal level effect that is partially the result of global warming may be seen in the disassociation of types of algae from their symbiotic hosts. This process is known as:

A. commensalistic separation

B. sequential hermaphroditism

C. parasitoid evacuation

D. coral bleaching

E. mutualistic exclusion


Which of the following would NOT be considered an economic hardship associated with global warming?

A. increased coastal flooding from rising seas

B. reduced seasonal availability of ski tourism

C. incorporating true cost pricing on product sales, particularly vehicles

D. increased investment in renewable energy sources

E. loss of annual crop yield due to less water availability


An attempt at global collaboration in curbing greenhouse gas emissions was demonstrated by the:

A. Clean Air Act

B. Montreal Protocol

C. Natural Resource Defense Council

D. Kyoto protocol

E. Environmental Protection Agency


Ignoring CO2 emissions

caused by fossil fuel use,

which would be the best

practice to reduce

anthropogenic greenhouse gases?

A. institute policies that reduce deforestation worldwide

B. eliminate the use of ozone-depleting chemicals

C. convert wetlands into agricultural land

D. increase the use of nitrogen based fertilizer

E. subsidize logging in the Pacific Northwest


Which of the following would provide the most ecologically sound approach to sequestering carbon that has already been emitted into the atmosphere?

A. applying nitrates to oceans to stimulate algal growth and thus photosynthetic activity

B. allowing agricultural fields to become pasture or forest

C. converting methane-emitting wetlands into agricultural land

D. interrupting bacterial respiration to reduce carbon output

E. introducing termite bio-controls to reduce the production of methane


Which of the following

processes would likely

contribute the most to the

greenhouse effect?

A. raising of livestock

B. ignoring the Montreal protocol

C. supporting slash and burn agriculture

D. usage of hydrocarbon fuel for energy

E. stimulating microbial digestion of organic matter


What is the only developed country that has NOT ratified the Kyoto Protocol?

A. United States

B. France

C. Russia

D. Japan

E. France


The major greenhouse gases include all of the following EXCEPT

A. water vapor.

B. methane.

C. sulfur dioxide.

D. carbon dioxide.

E. nitrous oxide.


Which of the following statements about the greenhouse effect is FALSE?

A. The amount of heat trapped in the troposphere depends on concentrations of greenhouse gases.

B. The greenhouse effect is a new theory that explains the warming of the atmosphere.

C. The two predominant greenhouse gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide.

D. It has been confirmed by numerous lab experiments and measurements of atmospheric temperatures at different altitudes.

E. Heat trapped by greenhouse gases keeps the planet warm enough for life.


The greatest UNcertainty in current climate models comes from

A. patterns of variation in solar radiation.

B. measurements of air pressure.

C. measurements of air temperature.

D. measurements of wind speed and direction.

E. effects of clouds and ecosphere on climate.


Almost half of the excess carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by human activities

A. is absorbed by the soil.

B. remains in the atmosphere.

C. is absorbed by the oceans.

D. is absorbed by the growth of plants.

E. remains in sea shells


In the event of global warming, food production might be negatively affected by all of the following EXCEPT

A. lack of irrigation water in some areas.

B. changes in crop yields.

C. increased insect populations.

D. poorer soil in new crop-growing regions.

E. decreased UV radiation resulting from increased ozone.


A rise in sea level is LEASTlikely to

A. disrupt coastal fisheries.

B. flood areas where one-third of the world's human population lives.

C. contaminate coastal aquifers.

D. accelerate coastal erosion.

E. save the coral reefs.


Which of the following statements about the potential effects of global warming on human health is FALSE?

A. Food and freshwater supplies are likely to be disrupted.

B. Increased respiratory disease.

C. Sanitation systems in coastal cities may be flooded.

D. People are likely to be displaced.

E. Insect-borne diseases are likely to decrease in today's temperate zones.


All of the following are examples of reducing carbon dioxide levels in the troposphere through carbon sequestration EXCEPT

A. injecting it into the deep ocean.

B. bringing more cropland into production.

C. planting more trees.

D. pumping it deep underground.

E. growing more switchgrass.


The most powerful thing that decision makers do is

A. compromise.

B. inform the public.

C. establish policies.

D. enact laws.

E. develop and adopt a budget.


__ laws are those developed and passed by legislative bodies such as federal and state governments.

A. Corporate

B. Administrative

C. Common

D. Legislative

E. Statutory


Most federal public land is located

A. in National Parks.

B. in Alaska.

C. in the Northeast United States.

D. in the Western United States.

E. in California.


All of the following are economic goods EXCEPT

A. a walk in the woods.

B. a swing set.

C. clothes.

D. computer repair service.

E. food.


Which of the following is NOTconsidered a fundamental but correctable weakness in a capitalistic market system? Failure to

A. properly value nature's ecological services.

B. make widespread use of indicators that monitor environmental health and quality.

C. respect estimated sustainable-yield thresholds of natural systems.

D. obey the law of supply and demand.

E. include the harmful environmental costs of goods and services in market prices


The optimum level of pollution control is reached when

A. when technologies become affordable to clean up pollution

B. when demand for pollution clean-up exceeds the capacity to clean pollution

C. the marginal cost of pollution control intersects with the marginal cost of pollution

D. marginal costs of pollution control begins to exceed the marginal cost of pollution

E. marginal costs of pollution begins to exceed the marginal costs of pollution control


Which of the following is NOT an external cost of driving a domestic car?

A. cost of manufacture

B. destruction of land

C. pollution

D. highway deaths

E. highway accidents


Which is NOT a branch of the U. S. government?

A. executive

B. judicial

C. legislative

D. long-range planning board

E. administrative


All of the following would be considered examples of nonprofit, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) EXCEPT

A. the National Science Teachers Association.

B. the Nature Conservancy.

C. the AFL-CIO.

D. Texaco.

E. the National Wildlife Federation.