Thorough Thinking A look at developing critical thinking skills
“As critical thinkers, we are constantly on the lookout for thinking that’s inaccurate, sloppy, or misleading.” Ellis, Dave. “Critical Thinking: A Survival Skill.” Becoming a Master Student. 14th Ed. Boston, MA: Cengage. 2013. Shockproof “Crap” Detectors
People once believed… • Racial integration of the armed forces would lead to destruction of soldier morale. • Woman cannot vote intelligently. • The world is flat. • Earth is the center of the universe. False truths? Be Freed From the NONSENSE!!
Comparison/social validation • Liking/friendship • Authority • Reciprocity • Commitment-consistency • Scarcity Compliance Gaining Strategies
To question what you see, hear, and read • This is the cornerstone of a college education • To upset your own beliefs • Cognitive dissonance: when we challenge our beliefs with contrary information—we often ignore that information • To admit when you were wrong about something • When you find your thinking was originally fuzzy, lazy, dishonest, or based on biases You Have the Right!
Important to reading, writing, speaking, and listening well • Promotes social change (i.e., Civil Rights) • Uncovers bias and prejudice • Reveals long term consequences • Admits when you don’t know something rather than accepting quick but inadequate answers Why Thorough Thinking?
Distinguishing between opinion and fact • Asking probing questions • Making detailed observations • Uncovering assumptions • Making assertions backed by evidence and logic • Planning Thorough Thinking involves…
Level 1: Remembering • Level 2: Understanding • Level 3: Applying • Level 4: Analyzing • Level 5: Evaluating • Level 6: Creating Six Levels of Critical Thinking
Involves recalling key terms, facts, or events • Study by creating flash cards or memorizing a list of definitions to recite exactly Level 1: Remembering
Involves whether you can explain ideas in your own words and comprehension • Provide examples of your experiences to show understanding • Example: Discuss the concept of active listening. Level 2: Understanding
Involves using an idea to create a desired result • Answers questions that ask you to apply, solve, construct, plan, predict, and produce Level 3: Applying
Involves dividing a concept into parts • Questions ask you to classify, separate, distinguish, or outline Level 4: Analyzing
Involves rating the truth, usefulness, or quality of an idea and giving reasons for that rating • At this level, you agree, disagree, or suspend judgment until you have more info • At this level, you give your opinion with reasoning and offer supporting evidence • True “critical” thinking Level 5: Evaluating
Involves inventing something new based on an idea • Analyze an idea into parts and then combine in a new way • Take several ideas and find unexpected connections • Beyond offering an opinion—you are offering something unique • Find that “aha!” moment Level 6: Creating
Find various points of view on ANY issue • Define terms (even something as simple as “family”) • Look for assertions (these answer questions) • Look for at least three viewpoints, answers • Practice tolerance—be open-minded • Look for logic and evidence • Consider the source—could he/she be biased? • Understand another’s viewpoint before you criticize • Be willing to be uncertainty to take time to examine an issue • Write your thoughts to allow more time for reflection • Ask questions To be a Thorough Thinker…