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Intro to Weimar, and Hitler and the NAZI’s. Revolution of 1918. November 9 th : –Kaiser abdicates and flees to Holland – new temporary civilian government under the leader of Social Democrats (SD) Friedrich Ebert whose party had the most votes in recent elections (the Republic is declared)

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Presentation Transcript
revolution of 1918
Revolution of 1918
  • November 9th :

–Kaiser abdicates and flees to Holland

– new temporary civilian government under the leader of Social Democrats (SD) Friedrich Ebert whose party had the most votes in recent elections (the Republic is declared)

  • November 10th: Deal struck between new government and army (for support)
  • November 11th – representatives of new government meet with Allies and agree to armistice at 11/11 11AM

Kaiser Wilhelm II in Exile


support for the revolution
Support for the Revolution

….And some Germans (like Prince Max who convinced the Kaiser to abdicate) feared a civil war would break out if things didn’t change

….And Wilson refused to offer peace without a “democratic” government in Germany

structure of government
Structure of Government

Government under Kaiser

Weimar Government 1919 - 34

Kaiser Wilhelm II

President Hindenburg


Elections January 1919

…Yeah in the midst of all this!

*remaining 10% or so was divided among 4 small regional parties*

german political parties
German Political Parties




First act of new government?

Signing the Treaty of Versailles

Note: Germany is divided into two parts by the ‘Polish Corridor’



    • The Army (General Ludendorff) accuses the new government of “a stab in the back” (betraying the army while it was fighting the war – not defeated)
    • Representatives of the new government branded as the November Criminals by the Nationalists and later the NAZIs for signing the armistice and the Treaty of Versailles.
four putsches
Four Putsches
  • “Red Bavaria”:
    • Leninists take over in Bavaria
    • Late 1918 to early 1919
  • Spartacist Revolt
    • January 1919
    • Leninists fail to take over in Berlin after defeat by the Freikorps
  • Kapp Putsch
    • March 1920
    • Berlin nearly falls to rightists
    • Freikorps led by Dr. Wolfgang Kapp
  • Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch
    • November 1923

Young Hitler

  • Modest origins
    • Father - minor customs official
    • Born in German-Austrian border town of Braunau, Austria in 1889
  • Dropped out of school at 16 in 1905
    • Dreams of art or architecture
  • In 1907 moves to Vienna
    • Failed to gain admission to Vienna Fine Arts or Vienna School of Architecture
    • Mom dies
was hitler jewish
Was Hitler Jewish?
  • It is possible though unproven
  • Hitler’s paternal grandfather is unknown
    • Hitler’s dad’s mom was named Schicklgruber & Hitler’s dad was born illegitimate
  • She later married a man named Hiedler who formally adopted Hitler’s dad & gave him the name Hitler
hitler up to wwi
Hitler up to WWI
  • Aimless in Austria
    • From 16 to 23 years of age
  • Lived on small inheritance & orphan’s pension
  • Sold tourist postcards to make ends meet
  • Picked up anti-Semitic views living on the street & in flophouses / hostels
  • 1913 - moved to Munich, Bavaria, Germany
hitler world war i
Hitler & World War I
  • Caught up in war fervor when Germany declares war (photo)
  • Enlisted as soldier in WWI
    • Dispatch runner at the front
    • Wounded twice, decorated five times including Iron Cross (HIH video)
  • War ended 1918
    • Hitler in hospital temporarily blind from poison gas
  • Believes German republic stabbed Germans in the back for seeking peace
hitler the nazis
Hitler & The Nazis
  • Unemployed after war
  • Took job spying on political parties for the army
  • Joined one of them instead: German Workers’ Party
    • Became National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party)
  • Became exceptional speaker
    • Practice and determination

Hofbrauhaus where Hitler gave many

Speeches to his followers

beer hall putsch pooch
Beer Hall Putsch ‘Pooch’
  • 1921 Hitler became leader of Nazi Party
  • Called ‘Der Fuhrer’
  • 1923 Hitler plans coup in Munich
  • To be followed by March on Berlin
    • Remind you of anything?

Mussolini’s March on Rome (a year earlier)

What the king conquered,

The prince shaped,

The field marshall defended,

Was rescued & united by the soldier.

storm troopers sa
Storm Troopers -- SA
  • ‘Strong-arm’ squads
  • Hitler’s paramilitary force
  • Many unemployed & ex-WWI vets (Freikorps)
  • Sturm Abteilung
    • “Storm troopers”
    • AKA “brown shirts”

(not to be confused with Mussolini’s “Blackshirts”!)


schutzstaffel ss
Schutzstaffel SS
  • Led by Himmler
  • Began as Hitler’s bodyguard
  • Slowly grew to huge operation after he comes to power
    • Concentration camps
    • Dirty work

Leader of Bavaria von Kahr called meeting to debate Stresemann’s new policies

    • Buergerbrau beer hall
  • Hitler & SA interrupted, fired a shot into ceiling, & declared ‘The national revolution has broken out’.
  • Hitler declared takeover of local government, followed by a march on Berlin
  • Ludendorff arrived on Hitler’s side
  • 9th Nov 1923 – Hitler and 3000 supporters were confronted by 100 armed policemen
  • 16 Nazis were killed, Hitler was wounded
  • The whole putsch (revolt) collapsed

Beer Hall Putsch ‘Pooch’


Why did the Nazi Putsch Fail ?

  • Tactical errors
    • Hitler left to resolve another crisis
    • Ludendorff allowed leaders to go home
  • Hitler had expected support from other right-wing groups, including the Bavarian government of von Kahr
  • The Nazis had little public exposure – few outside Munich had ever heard of them

Trial& Prison Term

  • Hitler & Ludendorff arrested & jailed
  • Ludendorff acquitted
  • Hitler found guilty of treason
  • However, Hitler obtained sympathy & fame
  • Sentenced to 5 years, served 9 months
  • Wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

Hitler and supporters in Landsberg prison, 1924

hitler s plan for the third reich
Hitler’s Plan for the Third Reich
  • ‘Mein Kampf’ = ‘My Struggle’
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Unite all German-speaking people in an Empire, The Third Reich including:
    • Dutch, Scandinavians, English, half of Belgiums
    • Germans in Austria, Poland, Sudetenland
  • Expand territory, Lebensraum, into Ukraine & lands between
  • Enforce racial “purification”
    • Most loathsome: Jews
    • Master race prevails
  • Anti-Democracy

Hitler Comes to