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China’s First Civilizations. Chapter 7, Section 1, page 224. Chapter 7, Section 1 Objectives. After this lesson, students will be able to: describe how rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape Chinese civilization.

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china s first civilizations

China’s First Civilizations

Chapter 7, Section 1, page 224

chapter 7 section 1 objectives
Chapter 7, Section 1 Objectives
  • After this lesson, students will be able to:
    • describe how rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape Chinese civilization.
    • explain how rulers known as the Shang became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies.
    • describe how Chinese rulers claimed the right to rule by a Mandate of Heaven.
why is china important
Why is China Important?
  • world’s largest population
  • one of the fastest growing economies in the world
  • experiencing major infrastructure growth
  • leader in sciences (computers & mathematics)
  • historically and culturally significant
  • communist government
  • a new superpower?
china s geography page 224
China’s Geography – page 224
  • Huang He (Yellow River) – flows from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean
    • particularly fertile due to loess
  • Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) – flows east across China and empties into the Yellow Sea
china s geography page 226
China’s Geography – page 226
  • Less than 1/10 of China’s land is arable (fit for farming)
    • Himalayas – southwest
    • Kunlun Shan & Tian Shan – western border
    • Gobi & Taklimakan Deserts
      • Gobi – a cold, rocky desert east of the Kunlun Shan and Tian Shan Mountains
the shang dynasty page 226
The Shang Dynasty – page 226
  • The Huang He valley was the site of the first Chinese civilizations.
  • Xia dynasty (?)
  • Shang dynasty – founded c. 1750 B.C.
    • most historians use the rise of this dynasty as the beginning of Chinese civilization
    • made the city of Anyang China’s first capital city
the shang dynasty page 2267
The Shang Dynasty – page 226
  • Shang dynasty
    • strong monarchy
    • aristocracy (nobles whose wealth comes from the land they own) made of warlords and officials
    • large army
    • agricultural society (farmers could be pulled for other projects)
spirits and ancestors page 227
Spirits and Ancestors – page 227
  • spirits in mountains, rivers, etc.
  • ancestor worship
    • family was central to society
    • believed departed ancestors could bring good fortune and good luck
    • offerings made even today
telling the future page 228
Telling the Future – page 228
  • government and religion closely linked
  • oracle bones – first example of Chinese writing
the chinese language page 228
The Chinese Language – page 228
  • pictographs – characters that stand for objects
  • ideographs – a character that joins two or more pictographs to represent an idea
    • advantage: people from all over could read = unity
    • disadvantage: too many characters too remember (needed to know 1,500 to be barely literate)
shang artists page 229
Shang Artists – page 229
  • bronze casting – the best-known Shang art form
the zhou dynasty page 229
The Zhou Dynasty – page 229
  • Wu Wang led a rebellion against the Shang, and created the Zhou dynasty (1045 B.C. – 256 B.C.).
    • dynasty lased for more than 800 years
    • developed the idea of the Mandate of Heaven
what was the mandate of heaven page 230
What Was the Mandate of Heaven? – page 230
  • mandate – a formal order
  • Mandate of Heaven – idea that the king had been chosen by heavenly order to rule; Zhou claimed that principle gave them the right to rule
    • catches:
      • Dao – the proper way kings were expected to rule
      • people had the right to overthrow an unjust king or one that has apparently lost the Mandate of Heaven
    • dynastic cycle
new tools and trade page 230
New Tools and Trade – page 230
  • iron
    • population boom
  • roads and canals
  • coined money introduced
  • silk
the zhou empire falls page 231
The Zhou Empire Falls – page 231
  • “Period of the Warring States”
  • invention of the saddle and stirrup allowed for mounted combat
chapter 7 section 1 questions
Chapter 7, Section 1 Questions
  • Between which two rivers is the heartland of China found?
  • Why is China’s arable land limited?
  • What is a dynasty?
  • What were oracle bones and how were they used?
  • What is the Mandate of Heaven and which dynasty used it as a justification for their rise to power?
  • How is the dynastic cycle connected to the Mandate of Heaven?
life in ancient china

Life in Ancient China

Chapter 7, Section 2, page 233

chapter 7 section 2 objectives
Chapter 7, Section 2 Objectives
  • After this lesson, students will be able to:
    • describe the three main social classes Chinese society, landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.
    • explain how Chinese philosophies grew out of a need for order in China.
life in ancient china page 233
Life in Ancient China – page 233
  • Chinese social classes
  • tenant farmers – people pay rent by giving the landlord a portion of their crops
what was life like in a chinese family page 234
What was Life Like in a Chinese Family? – page 234
  • Family was the basic building block of Chinese society.
  • filial piety – practice that requires children to respect their parents and older relatives
  • The leader of the family was usually the oldest male.
who was confucius page 236
Who Was Confucius? – page 236
  • Confucius – China’s first great teacher and thinker
    • goal: to bring peace to society
    • basic premise: people needed to have a sense of duty
    • Confucianism – taught that if each person does his or her duty, society as a whole will do well
what is daoism page 238
What Is Daoism? – page 238
  • Laozi – the “Old Master”(?) founded Daoism
    • people should give up their worldly desires
    • turn to nature and the Dao
    • turn away from worldly concerns and live in peace with nature
    • Dao De Jing
what is legalism page 239
What Is Legalism? – page 239
  • Hanfeizi – thought people were naturally evil
    • developed Legalism – taught that people needed harsh laws and punishment to make them live rightly
    • strong ruler necessary
    • aristocrats liked Legalism
chapter 7 section 2 questions
Chapter 7, Section 2 Questions
  • What is unique about the ancient Chinese social structure?
  • Define filial piety.
  • Name the founders of Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.
  • Which philosophy was centered around a strong system of laws and punishments in order to keep society in order?
  • Compare Confucianism and Daoism.
the qin and han dynasties

The Qin and Han Dynasties

Chapter 7, Section 3, page 240

chapter 7 section 3 objectives
Chapter 7, Section 3 Objectives
  • After this lesson, students will be able to:
    • describe the harsh methods Qin Shihuangdi used to unify and defend China.
    • describe how people were tested for jobs under the Han dynasty and how new inventions improved life for all Chinese.
    • explain how the Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as Greece and Rome.
emperor qin shihuangdi page 241
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi – page 241
  • Period of the Warring States – period of violence that made people look for a way to restore order
  • Qin Shihuangdi (sp) – “First Qin Emperor”(221 B.C.)
    • from the state of Qin (China)
    • establishes the Qin Dynasty (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.)
a powerful ruler page 241
A Powerful Ruler – page 241
  • Qin Shihuangdi
    • based his rule on the ideas of Legalism
      • eliminated opposition
      • burned books
      • instituted a practice called “strengthening the trunk and weakening the branches”
    • created an autocracy – a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner
a powerful ruler page 242
A Powerful Ruler – page 242
  • accomplishments
    • set standards for writing, law, currency, weights, and measures
    • over 4,000 miles of roads constructed
    • irrigation projects improved farm production
    • early Great Wall (one we know today built in the Ming Dynasty)
why did the people rebel page 242
Why Did the People Rebel? – page 242
  • Four years after Qin Shihuangdi’s death, the Qin dynasty was overthrown.
    • farmers, scholars, and aristocrats were all displeased with how he had ruled
the han dynasty page 244
The Han Dynasty – page 244
  • Liu Bang – founded the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. – A.D. 220)
  • Han Wudi – wanted talented people to work in government; developed the civil service exam
    • population reaches 60 million under Han Wudi
    • expansion policy –”Martial Emperor”
an era of new inventions page 245
An Era of New Inventions – page 245
  • waterwheels
  • iron drill bits
  • steel
  • paper
  • rudder
  • advances in medicine
    • acupuncture – treatment that is supposed to ease pain by sticking needles into the skin
the silk road page 246
The Silk Road – page 246
  • Silk Road – network of trade routes that stretched from China to southwest Asia
    • China exported silk, spices, tea, & porcelain
    • Zhang Qian – explored areas west of China; brought back stories of the Roman Empire
chapter 7 section 3 questions
Chapter 7, Section 3 Questions
  • Which of the doctrines discussed in Section 2 did Qin Shihuangdi follow?
  • Why was the Qin Dynasty overthrown?
  • Who founded the Han Dynasty?
  • What is the purpose of the civil service exam?
  • Give examples of items that the Chinese exported using the Silk Road.