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Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do PowerPoint Presentation
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Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do

Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do

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Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do

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  1. Research and Data Collection to Measure and Evaluate What We Do National Study Center for Trauma & EMS

  2. Outline • Traffic Records Data in Maryland • Statistical Overview • Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) • Previous research studies • Younger v older • Motorcycle type • Helmet study • Ongoing studies • Promising practices • Rider observations • Behavioral surveys

  3. Statistical Overview

  4. Crashes, Injuries and Fatalitiesin Maryland… • Motorcyclist fatalities have decreased since 2007 by close to 27%, while total traffic fatalities decreased 21% during that period. • There were 3% fewer injuries and 4% fewer fatalities in 2011compared to 2010. • Motorcycle crash-related fatalities comprised 14.4% of all traffic fatalities in 2011, down slightly from 14.7% in 2010.

  5. Maryland Trends • Motorcycle registrations decreased by 2.5% from 2009 to 2011 • As of August 2012, a total 223,525 people held some class of motorcycle license • 15% ages 50-54 • 14% ages 45-49 • 13.5% ages 55-59

  6. Maryland Motorcycle Data

  7. Maryland Motorcycle Data

  8. **In rear-end crashes, when the motorcycle sustains damage to the frontal plane they are assumed to be the striking vehicle

  9. Crash Information • From 2008-2010, there were 129 same direction left turn crashes involving motorcycles. • In those crashes, the motorcycle was moving at a constant speed, accelerating, slowing or stopping, or passing in 103 of the crashes (80%). • The motorcycle was only turning left in 10 (8%) of those crashes.

  10. Top Contributing Circumstances in Motorist-Fault Collisions with MC • Failure to Give Full Time and Attention • Failure to Yield Right of Way • Following Too Close • Improper Turn

  11. In Maryland in 2008…..

  12. Hospital Admission Charge Percentile Maryland CODES - 2008

  13. Licensure • In 2010: • 2,037 motorcycle operators were involved in crashes • 1,544 were reported to have a MD license • 24% of total were out-of-state operators • 1,513 linked to MVA licensure files • 896 (59%) had an M endorsement on record • However, only 339 (22%) had an M in the class field on the crash report

  14. Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

  15. Police Crash Reports Ambulance & EMS Logs ED Data Hospital Records CODES Data Integration To analyze correlations between crash circumstances, EMS response, and clinical treatment to understand crash causes and outcomes

  16. Traffic RecordsPerformance Measures • Timeliness • Consistency • Completeness • Accuracy • Accessibility • Data Integration • Program management and evaluation • Research and program development • Policy development • Private sector and public requests Roadway Crash Driver/Vehicle Enforcement Adjudication EMS/Trauma

  17. Police Crash Reports Ambulance & EMS Logs Driver Citations MVA Licensing ED Data Hospital Records Vital Statistics Autopsy Records Statewide Trauma Registry Toxicology Available Injury Data Sources in Maryland

  18. Challenges • Motorcycle safety is not just one problem, but several problems: • Rider Vulnerability • Rider Inexperience • Driver Inattention • Driver Awareness and Attitudes • Rider Impairment • Aggressive Riding

  19. Rider Vulnerability • Represent 2.5% of all registered motor vehicles • Are involved in 15% of fatal motor vehicle collisions • Motorcycle operators are 4 times more likely to be injured or die in a in a crash than other drivers • 1 in 25 motorcycle crashes result in a fatality

  20. Rider Inexperience/Training

  21. Previous Research Studies

  22. Motorcycle Research Projects • Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators in MD • Motorcycle Body Type • Helmet Photographs • Promising Practices • On-road Observational Study • Motorcyclist Survey (riding behaviors) • Injury Patterns – Hospitalized Younger and Older Motorcycle Operators • The Association Between Age, Injury and Survival to Hospital Among a Cohort of Injured Motorcyclists

  23. Motorcycle Body Type

  24. Motorcycle Class Information • 11 character (de-identified) VIN numbers from Motor Vehicle Administration (MVA) registration file provided to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) • IIHS returned motorcycle ‘class name’ information for each VIN number • Cruiser • Sport • Sport Touring • Super Sport • Touring • Other (chopper, dual purpose, off road, scooter, sidecar, standard, unclad sport)

  25. Motorcycle Class Information • ‘Class name’ data merged back to Maryland motorcycle registration data from MVA • In 2008 data file, 74% of registered motorcycles in MD have a ‘class name’ • It is speculated that the remaining 26% could not be categorized for a variety of reasons (modifications, specialized models, old registrations, etc.)

  26. Crash Data • The updated MVA registration file (with ‘class name’) was merged with 14 years of police crash report data (1998-2011) • The files were merged by VIN number • 50% match • It is speculated that the remaining 50% could not be matched for a variety of reasons (missing fields, poor VIN capture, etc.) • The following slides include information based on the records that matched (50%) of all motorcycles in crashes and their operator

  27. Cruiser Class • 33.2% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011 • Trend remained steady over the 14 years (36.7% - 1998; 30.6% - 2002; 30.9% - 2007; 36.0% - 2011) • Of all cruiser motorcycles in crashes, 4.5% of the operators were fatally injured • 78.1% injured • Crash characteristics • 14.0% involved speed • 2.5% involved aggressive riding • 12.5% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)

  28. Sport Class • 11.1% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011 • Trend fluctuated over the 14 years (12.8% - 1998; 16.7% - 2000; 9.5% - 2007; 8.6% in 2011) • Of all sport motorcycles in crashes, 6.3% of the operators were fatally injured • 75.2% injured • Crash characteristics • 27.4% involved speed • 5.9% involved aggressive riding • 5.1% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)

  29. Sport Touring Class • 0.7% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011 • Trend remained steady over the 14 years (0.8% - 1998; 0.4% - 2002; 1.0% - 2007; 1.1% in 2011) • Of all sport touring motorcycles in crashes, 5.3% of the operators were fatally injured • 66.7% injured • Crash characteristics • 16.0% involved speed • 4.0% involved aggressive riding • 2.7% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)

  30. Super Sport Class • 35.9% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011 • Trend increased over the 14 years (30.0% - 1998; 36.2% - 2002; 39.7% - 2007; 33.7% in 2011) • Of all super sport motorcycles in crashes, 6.4% of the operators were fatally injured • 74.0% injured • Crash characteristics • 32.5% involved speed • 8.5% involved aggressive riding • 5.6% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)

  31. Touring Class • 12.0% of motorcycles involved in crashes from 1998-2011 • Trend remained steady over the 14 years (9.6% - 1998; 12.1% - 2002; 11.0% - 2007; 13.6% - 2011) • Of all touring motorcycles in crashes, 3.9% of the operators were fatally injured • 73.4% injured • Crash characteristics • 12.1% involved speed • 2.0% involved aggressive riding • 9.3% of the operators were impaired (alcohol and/or drugs)

  32. Crash Characteristics (1998-2007) • 22.4% of all operators reported to be speeding in the crash • 5.1% of all operators reported to be riding aggressively in the crash • 8.4% of all operators reported to be impaired (alcohol and/or drugs) in the crash

  33. Crash Characteristics • Of all motorcycles reported to be speeding in a crash • 20.7% cruiser; 13.6% sport; 0.5% sport touring; 52.1% super sport; 6.5% touring • Of all motorcycles reported to be aggressive in a crash • 16.0% cruiser; 12.7% sport; 0.5% sport touring; 59.6% super sport; 4.7% touring • Of all operators reported to be impaired (alcohol and/or drugs) in a crash • 49.8% cruiser; 6.7% sport; 0.2% sport touring; 23.9% super sport; 13.4% touring

  34. Question: How well do helmets work to prevent deaths? • Very well – can't prevent all deaths • Reduce the chances of a traumatic brain injury • Some helmets are not certified & will not provide protection (see example of bad helmet)

  35. Estimated effectiveness of helmets • Reduce chances of death in crash by 40% (Keng, 2005) • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: estimates helmets saved 1,316 motorcyclists' lives in 2004

  36. Deaths per 10,000 registered motorcycles before and after helmet law, Maryland(Aumanet al., 2002)

  37. Motorcycle Helmet Study

  38. Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators • 2007-2009 (n=189) • 94% men • 76% white • Education • 21%<12th grade • 27% High School, GED • 23% Some College • 22% College Graduate or higher

  39. Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators • Motorcycle ridden most often • 36% Harley Davidson • 18% Suzuki • 10% Yamaha • 16% Honda • 8% Kawasaki • Motorcycle Type • 40% Sport • 33% Cruiser • 10% Touring • Ownership • 93% owner • 37% owned <1 year

  40. Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators • Crash Type • 31% impact with object • 24% laid the bike down • 15% multiple vehicle intx • 17% multiple vehicle not at intx • Road Type • 26% county road/rural area • 29% suburban • 22% interstate • 14% city street/urban area

  41. Characteristics of Motorcycle Operators • Training • 60% motorcycle safety course • 48% basic • 10% intermediate • 8% experienced • Licensing • 89% valid motorcycle endorsement • 77% under the age of 21 when they began riding

  42. Helmet Type • STC Helmet Photos (n=242) • Type • 55% full face • 10% three-quarter • 35% half-shell • Compliant • 80% FMVSS compliant