world trade organisation world bank international monetary fund n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund

play fullscreen
1 / 41
Download Presentation

World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

urbana
166 Views
Download Presentation

World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. World Trade Organisation, World Bank, International Monetary Fund

  2. History • Structure • Issues

  3. World Bank & International Monetary Fund • Bretton Woods Conference – 1944 • Stabilise the global economy post World War II

  4. World Bank • Est. 1945 • To help reconstruct Europe • HQ – Washington DC • 186 members • Now - ‘Working for a world free of Poverty’

  5. World Bank • The World Bank Group • International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), • International Development Association (IDA) • International Finance Corporation (IFC) • Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) • International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

  6. World Bank • IBRD • Established 1944 • Loans to middle income countries • The IDA • established in 1960 as the World Bank’s agency for concessional financial assistance to the poorest of the developing countries • grants to poorest countries

  7. World Bank – How it works • Borrows money from international markets • Lends it to governments at low rates of interest

  8. International Monetary Fund • Established 1945 • 186 members • The IMF intergovernmental institution, established to promote international monetary cooperation, to foster economic growth and high levels of employment and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of payments adjustment. • ‘Lender of last resort’ • Global economic advisor

  9. IMF – How it works • Quotas for each country – ‘based broadly on its relative size in the world economy’ • How much is paid in – ‘one dollar one vote’ • How much can be received • Voting rights – not one country one vote! • Use reserves to borrow on financial markets and to lend to members

  10. Issues - Debt

  11. The total external debt of the South is almost $ 3 Trillion.Countries of the Global South continue to pay over US$ 100 million per day in debt repayments.

  12. Debt – Where did it come from? • 1973/74 Arab-Israeli War – 1st Oil Crisis. Oil prices quadruple • 1970s Higher Oil Prices generate surplus Petro-dollars for oil producing countries • Petro-dollars invested in western banks • Dollars then leant to developing country governments

  13. 1979 Second Oil Crisis. Oil prices increase by 150% – weak developed country growth – higher interest rates. • 1981 Dollar interest rates reach a high of 21.5% • 1982 Mexican Debt Crisis – Mexico threatens to default on its debt setting off the Debt crisis of the 80’s and 90’s and beyond.

  14. Why was the money borrowed? • Investment/Industrialisation • Arms • Corruption • It was cheap!

  15. Why was the money loaned? • Surplus dollars • Arms! • Recycled back to banks

  16. Structural Adjustment • International Monetary Fund/World Bank conditions for new loans • Aimed at cutting inflation • Aimed at suppressing demand to maintain debt repayment capacity

  17. Size of the Debt • By mid 1980’s Latin America transferring 5% of it’s income to rich countries in interest payments • By late 1980’s Africa’s debt to export ratio was 500%

  18. Structural Adjustment • Cut government expenditure • Raise interest rates • Devaluation • Privatisation • Import-Liberalisation • Removal of market ‘distortions’ eg labour controls, food subsidies etc • Export-led growth

  19. Less money on health and education - introduction of ‘user fees’ Interest rates discourage investment in small/medium enterprises Devaluation - imports more expensive Opening of Export Processing Zones Exports -Much of the benefit to a few - environmental destruction Higher food costs The effect of Structural Adjustment

  20. Results • Lower inflation rates • but…. • Incomes in Africa fell by 1% a year in the 1980’s • Latin American income fell by 10% in the 1980s

  21. Debt relief • 1996 Launch of Highly Indebted Poor Countries Initiative (HIPC I) • 1998 G8 Meeting in Birmingham UK: 70,000 people protest for Debt cancellation. • 1999 G8 Meeting in Cologne, Germany: G8 commit to cancelling $100bn of Third World Debt. Launch of HIPC II • 2005 Gleneagles Debts of 18 (now 19 countries) to the IMF/World Bank/ADB cancelled.

  22. Debt relief works:

  23. Spending on public services has risen by around 20% across all the countries that have received debt cancellation.

  24. On average, there has been an increase of around 40% on education spending,

  25. and a massive 70% on healthcare.

  26. Other Issues • WB as lender to damaging projects • WB as ‘knowledge broker’ – private sector supported development • WB as ‘gatekeeper’

  27. What is Ireland’s Role? • Ireland is a member of the World Bank & IMF. • Group: Canada, Ireland, 11 Caribbean countries • Canada (chair) most powerful

  28. WTO • Failed attempt to found International Trade Organisation (1948) • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – 1948 -1994 • Est. 1995 • Negotiate trade liberalisation • Set of trade rules • Resolve trade disputes

  29. Trade Rounds

  30. WTO – the beginnings – the Uruguay Round • Established 1995 • From GATT to WTO • Added: Agreement on Agriculture • Added: Services,Trade Related Intellectual Property (TRIPS), TRIMs etc • Added: Dispute Settlement Mechanism

  31. Structure • 153 members • One country one vote – decisions by consensus • HQ in Geneva • 3 main agreements – Goods , Services, Intellectual Property

  32. New Rules:TRIPS (Trade Related Intellectual Property) • A part of the World Trade Organisation agreements. • Deals with ‘intellectual property’ ie non-tangible property e.g. inventions. • Imposed a twenty-year patent on every member of the WTO. • Makes technology more expensive

  33. Economic cost to developing countries $40 Billion p.a. • Cost of implementation $1.5 to $2m per country • Introduction of patents on medicines - 20 years • Cost of Patented Anti-Retroviral per year in 2001 $10,000 • Cost of generic Anti-Retroviral per year in 2001 $360

  34. In Thailand new anti-aids drugs (ARVs) 15 times the cost of generic medicines ($6737 compared to $482).

  35. The ‘Doha Development Round’ 2001 • Fast (2005 deadline) • Broad: 9 parallel negotiations • Development-focussed: • ‘at the heart of the round’ • Special and Differential Treatment • Tariff peaks and escalation • Working groups on Debt, Tech Transfer

  36. The Doha Round Reality, Cancun 2005 • Slow – every deadline missed • Old Testament, not New – ‘Blood on the Floor’ • Mercantilism > economics • Market access > development • The North’s attempts to pick off ‘Advanced Developing Countries’ • China on manufacturing(NAMA) • Brazil on agriculture (AoA) • India on services (GATS) • ‘Singapore Issues’ e.g. Investment

  37. Failure to Failure • Hong Kong – December 2005 • July 2007 – ‘suspended’ • 2009 – 2010 .....

  38. Agriculture • Over ¾ of world’s 1.2 billion poor are farmers • 97% of farmers live in developing countries • North: tariff peaks + low average; South has high average • OECD spend circa $300bn every year on agricultural support – roughly = sub-Saharan Africa’s GDP. Result: zombie agriculture and dumping.

  39. Case Study: Cotton • U.S. • 22,000 cotton producers • Production costs per lb $0.68 • Subsidies of $3.4 billion in 2002/2003 • West Africa • 10 million dependent on cotton production • Production costs per lb e.g. Benin $0.30 • 2002 US aid to Burkina Faso, Togo and Chad: $19.7m • 2002 lost export revenue from cotton subsidies for Burkina Faso, Togo and Chad $26.7m

  40. What the WTO doesn’t do • Protect labour standards • Protect the environment