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The Dropout Problem In Pennsylvania: Why Communities In Schools Should be part of the State’s Answer. April 20, 2005 Morton D. Stanfield, State Director. How Big is the Problem in the US. NCES, Class of 2001 (Kaufman, Alt, & Chapman, 2004) Event (one year) Dropout Rate = 5.0%
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The Dropout Problem In Pennsylvania:Why Communities In Schools Should be part of the State’s Answer April 20, 2005 Morton D. Stanfield, State Director
How Big is the Problem in the US • NCES, Class of 2001 (Kaufman, Alt, & Chapman, 2004) • Event (one year) Dropout Rate = 5.0% • Status Completion Rate (All Races) = 86.5% • More Conservative Estimates of the 4-Year Graduation Rate: • 74.4% (2000-01) National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy (Haney et al.,2004) • 71%CPI Grad Rate (2002) Manhattan Institute (Greene & Winters, 2005) • 68%CPI Grad Rate (2001) Harvard Civil Rights Project & Urban Institute(Swanson, 2004; Orfield, et al, 2004) • Bottom Line: 25% - 30% of America’s teenagers fail to earn a regular high school diploma, and the dropout problem has not diminished over the past 20 years. (Sum & Harrington, 2003).
PA Graduation Rates by Race or Ethnicity *HCRP Researchers urge caution regarding this figure due to limited available data. enrollees.
Social Costs: Dropouts and Crime • Dropouts are more likely to get arrested: • HS Dropouts are 3.5 times more likely than HS graduates to be arrested in their lifetimes (Catterall, 1987) • Dropouts are more likely to be convicted of drug-related offenses: • Nearly 50% of drug offenders do not have a HS diploma or GED (Harlow, 2003) • Dropouts are over-represented in Prison: Of U.S. InmatesHarlow (2003): • 75% of state prison inmates are HS dropouts • 59% of federal prison inmates are HS dropouts. • 68% of all prisoners never received a HS diploma • 83% of inmates 24 or younger never earned a HS diploma • PA State Prison costs $31,900 per year per inmate in 2001, with 37,105 prisoners (Stephan, 2004)
Social Costs: Education & Welfare • Estimated tax revenue loss from male dropouts aged 25 and 34 = about $944 billion AND, additional costs due to public welfare and crime come to about $24 billion (Riggs, Carruthers, & Thorstensen, 2002) • Welfare costs per person drop as educational attainment increases, with the largest savings in welfare costs occurring as attainment increases from dropout to high school graduate (Vernez, Krop, & Rydell, 1999, p. 22)
Social Costs: Education & Health • Dropouts have Worse Health: • The death rate (all causes) for adults with less than 12 years of education was more than 2.5 times higher than the rate for those with at least 13 years of education (NCHS, 2004) • Low-Performing Teens are more likely to become mothers: • Teen girls performing at the lowest levels in basic reading and math are 5 times more likely to give birth over a 2-year high school period than high performing teen girls (SIECUS, 2002)
Education and Work:Personal Income • $9,425 less per year = estimated difference in annual earnings between HS Diploma and No Diploma (Donald, 2001) • Greene (2002) suggested the difference in median annual income between HS diploma earners and dropouts was closer to $14,000 • Over $300,000 = Lifetime earning gains for completing a high school diploma vs. dropping out (Employment Policy Foundation 2004)
Education and the Labor Force • US businesses spend more than $60 billion annually on training, much of that on remedial reading, writing, and math (National Association of Manufacturers, 2001) • Pennsylvania Employers can expect to spend $500,000,000 to $766,000,000 to correct the shortcomings of workers who leave PA high schools without basic skills (Hauk, McGraw, & Montarti, 2004)
What are the benefits of the Communities In Schools National network? • CIS has worked for over 27 years to earn its place as the nation’s leading community-based organization helping kids succeed in school and prepare for life. • 985K children directly, with access to 2M children • Almost 3000 public schools through nearly 200 local programs and 14 state offices • 54K volunteers, who donated over 2.5M hours of service • CIS is efficient, effective, and inexpensive • Nationally, CIS costs about $176 per year for each student served
Effective State Offices help insure the financial and political health of Local CIS Programs Programs covered by an effective SO were twice as likely to remain operational over the 1993-2002 period than programs in states with no SO Note: Analysis tracks only those local offices operating in 1993 Source: EOY Reports (1993; 2002) BOD final Jan o05
CIS of PA serves Students • 5 local programs: • CIS of Laurel Highlands, Inc. • CIS of Philadelphia, Inc. • CIS of Pittsburgh & Allegheny County, Inc. • CIS of Southwest Pennsylvania, Inc. • CIS of the Lehigh Valley, Inc. • 94 school sites. • 13,697 students are directly connected with services through CIS. • 85,852 students are enrolled in partnering schools and have access to services.