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Commercial Crew Update. Carol Scott November 3 , 2011. National Space Policy Principle.

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Commercial crew update

Commercial Crew Update

Carol Scott

November 3, 2011

National space policy principle

National Space Policy Principle

“A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship.”

Civil Space Guidelines

“Seek partnerships with the private sector to enable safe, reliable, and cost-effective commercial spaceflight capabilities and services for the transport of crew and cargo to and from the ISS.”

-2010 National Space Policy of United States of America

Genesis of need to create commercial programs

Genesis of Need to Create Commercial Programs

  • High cost of space transportation biggest obstacle to space exploration and utilization

  • Cost effective, commercially viable space transportation will transform human societyas much as the invention of the airplane

  • After 50 years of spaceflight, little progress made on lowering costs

    • Minimal progress in space propulsion technology

    • Government focus on highly reliable systems

    • Government contracting practices

    • Small space market

    • Lack of real free market forces

  • Government’s role to help develop technologies, explore, push boundaries of space frontier – private sector to handle “routine” space flight, improve efficiencies, lower costs

Commercial programs initiative

Commercial Programs Initiative

Extending human presence in space by enabling an expanding and robust U.S. commercial space transportation industry.

First Commercial Program initiated by NASA is the Launch Services Program. Provides NASA insight to the Commercial launch providers for commercial satellite customers.

In 2005, the Commercial Cargo Program Office was established to provide an alternate commercial source to deliver cargo to the ISS.

In 2011, the Commercial Crew Program Office was established to provide a commercial source for transporting NASA crew to the ISS.

Commercial cargo to iss plan

Commercial Cargo to ISS Plan

Commercial Orbital Transportation System: Development Phase

$500M budgeted in FY06-FY10 as an investment for the demonstration of commercial orbital transportation capabilities

  • ISS Commercial Resupply Services

  • Contract awarded December 2008

    • SpaceX: 12 cargo missions 2011 - 2015, $1.6 B

    • Orbital: 8 cargo missions 2011 – 2015, $1.9 B

Commercial crew program approach

Commercial Crew Program Approach

Fiscal Year

Initial Design

Critical Design


Demo/Test Flights


Commercial Crew

  • The Program objective is to facilitate the development of a U.S. commercial crew space transportation capability for achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) by mid decade. 

    • Develop and implement a strategy that stimulates U.S. space transportation industry and encourages the availability of space transportation services to NASA and others

    • Mature the design, development, demonstration, and certification of U.S. Crew Transportation Systems (CTS) capabilities

    • Utilize an alternate business approach by investing in U.S. aerospace industry CTS design and development

    • Develop CTS certification requirements and strategies ensuring safe transportation for NASA crew

    • Provide Partners access to NASA’s technical expertise and resources for development issue resolution

Key partnering attributes

Key Partnering Attributes

Ensure verification of end-to-end CTS certificationrequirements

Enable timely ISS services and flexibility in progression through life-cycle phases

Maximize cost effectiveness; limit absolute value cost to the government and potential for cost growth

Enable cost share with fixed government investment

Maximize Partner retention of Intellectual Property (IP) rights

Appropriately allocate liability between government and Commercial Partner and indemnify Commercial Partner (consistent with government authority)

Encourage partners to market products to other customers

Minimize the administrative overhead burden

Maximize balance and efficiency in cost / financial reporting requirements

Commercial crew program

Commercial Crew Program

  • Multicenter Program that takes advantage of the expertise across the agency

    • Program Manager resides at KSC

    • Deputy Program Manager resides at JSC

  • Program Mission

    • Manage the investment in the development of commercial end-to-end transportation systems

    • Manage the CTS certification process

    • Lead the technical and programmatic partner integration and approval functions

Commercial crew development ccdev

Commercial Crew Development (CCDev)

Phase 1: Initial Design Concepts

Commercial crew development 2 ccdev2

Commercial Crew Development 2 (CCDev2)

  • Four Companies

  • $269M in Space Act Agreements

  • $66.3M Milestone Payments made to date

  • Nominal Completion by May 2012

  • Additional Milestones can be added

  • 3 of the 4 to Internal Integrated PDR State

  • 1 of the 4 to Internal SRR State

Phase 2:

Maturing Design Elements

Ccp tactical path for 2012

CCP Tactical Path for 2012

United Launch



Finish CCDev2

15 of 45 Milestones Completed

$118.8M of $315.5M in Milestone Payments

Evolve the Insight and Oversight into the IDC

Award IDC

Establish a baseline design state for each of the IDC contracts

Deal with a changing budget environment

Ccp acquisition roadmap

CCP Acquisition Roadmap










Blue Origin

CCDev1 Element Design



Sierra Nevada


Blue Origin


CCDev2 Element Design

Sierra Nevada

Space X



Design and Early Development

Integrated Design

Phase 1*

Potential Initial ISS Missions

Early Development Testing & Certification Activities


DTEC Phase 2* and Initial

ISS Missions


Transition to Services

* Number of contracts will conform to budget constraints

State of the program

State of the Program

CCDev2 is progressing well and on schedule.

Requirements are almost ready to be baselined.

Insight/Oversight experiences are helping to mold future relationships.

Program Strategy is approved and being implemented.

IDC dRFP has been released.

Budget is a major challenge.

Collaboration efforts are in full swing between CCP and FAA/AST.

Stakeholder view of the Program is slowly changing for the positive.