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Wale Adewole Siyé Baker Heriberto Cortes Wesley Hawk Ashley McKnight. T.M.F.T: Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Testing. Outline. Project Scope Background Research Design Ideas Design Selection Future Plans. Project Scope.

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Wale adewole siy baker heriberto cortes wesley hawk ashley mcknight

Wale Adewole

Siyé Baker

Heriberto Cortes

Wesley Hawk

Ashley McKnight

T.M.F.T: Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Testing


  • Project Scope

  • Background Research

  • Design Ideas

  • Design Selection

  • Future Plans

Project scope
Project Scope

  • Locate and identify standards for thermal mechanical fatigue failure.

  • Create a testing rig and a sample.

  • Test the aluminum specimens and accurately identify the necessary properties.

  • Use these results to create a program that can accurately predict if one aluminum sample will be better suited for a thermal mechanical fatigue application based on its mechanical properties.


  • American Society for testing and materials definition of fatigue.

    • “The process of progressive localized permanent structure change, occurring in a material subjected to fluctuating stresses and strains…which may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after sufficient number of fluctuations.”

  • Constrained thermal fatigue is the result of a material not being able to expand under rising temperature.

  • This constraint places the material under compressive forces with rising temperature and tensile forces during cooling.

Design ideas
Design Ideas

Manual Heating and Cooling

  • Heating is done by placing specimen in a furnace.

  • Cooling is done by placing the specimen in a water bath.

  • Specimen is manually moved from the heat to the cooling chamber.


  • Inexpensive.

  • Simple design.


  • Specimen holder is affected by temperature change.

  • Long, and tedious process.

Design ideas continued
Design Ideas Continued

Resistance Heating and Convective Cooling

  • Heating of the sample is done by a resistance heater placed near the sample.

  • Cooling is done by convection with the surrounding air.

  • Heating and cooling are toggled via electrical controls.


  • Electrical control of heating and cooling cycles.


  • Specimen holder not isolated from thermal effects.

  • Long heating and cooling periods.

Design ideas continued1
Design Ideas Continued

Hot Oil Bath

  • Heating is done through placement in a hot oil bath.

  • Cooling is done through dipping in a cooling bath.

  • Specimen is mechanically moved from one bath to the other.


  • Fast heating a cooling rates.

  • Low amount of input from user.


  • Testing rig is exposed to thermal fluctuation.

  • Danger caused by splattering oil.

Design ideas continued2
Design Ideas Continued

Thermal Isolation Rig

  • Heating is done by electrical resistance heating coil placed around a small section of the center of the sample.

  • Cooling is done by convection.

  • Heating is turn off when sample reaches desired temperature.


  • Thermal isolation of testing rig.

  • Ability to measure sample temperature and load.

  • Electronic control requires minimum user input.


  • Larger cost.

Final design
Final Design

Thermal Isolation Rig

  • Has the ability to test tension and compression of the specimen during heating and cooling cycles.

  • Testing rig is isolated from the thermal fluctuation due to the cooling of the specimen holder clamps.

  • Simple stationary design requires on moving parts.

Pro e drawing
Pro-E Drawing

Load Cell

Aluminum Specimen

Holding Clamps

Clamp design
Clamp Design

  • Clamp 1(left):

    • Designed to connect load cell to aluminum specimen.

    • Raised edges to direct cooling water flow.

  • Clamp 2(right):

    • Stationary clamp attaches specimen to base.

    • Hole for thermocouple wire to pass through.

    • Raised edges to direct water flow.

Thermocouple wire hole

Load cell threaded attachment point

Raised Edge


  • Energy transfer through Conduction.

    • 130 Watts

  • Energy loss due to natural convection.

    • 8 Watts

  • Time required to cool sample.

    • 37 seconds

Initial fem analysis
Initial FEM Analysis

  • Displacement and reaction forces of constrained aluminum sample.

Initial fem analysis1
Initial FEM Analysis

  • Initial stresses in the clamp from thermal expansion.

  • Initial displacement in the clamp from thermal expansion.

Initial fem analysis2
Initial FEM Analysis

  • The initial temperature distribution on the clamp without cooling of the clamp.

  • Entire clamp reaches over 400°F.

  • Unacceptable amount of heat from sample.

Calculations continued
Calculations Continued

  • Water flow rate

    • 60 gal/hr

  • Laminar flow rate over the clamp.

  • Water convection coefficient over clamp.

    • 4.777E+3 W/(m^2*K)

  • Calculated energy loss throughclamp at max temperature.

    • 180 Watts

Revised fem analysis
Revised FEM Analysis

  • Using new values for convection coefficient.

  • Temperature distribution not as dramatic with combined convection and water flow.

  • Max=450°F

  • Min=81°F

Testing procedure
Testing Procedure

  • Sample is place in tester.

  • Water flow over clamps is initialized.

  • The sample is heated to 150°F and the load cell is zeroed.

  • Sample will be cycled between maximum temperature and minimum temperature until failure occurs.

  • Data is collected from the sample at even increments.

Data acquisition
Data Acquisition

  • The loads created by the thermal tension and compression of the specimen will be acquired by using a load cell that will be connected to a computer with lab view or a similar program.

  • This data will be correlated with the temperature data obtained from the thermocouple throughout the experiment.

  • This acquired data will be used to analyze the effect of thermal fatigue on different materials.

  • It will also be used to obtain a relationship between material properties and thermal fatigue failure.

Future plans
Future Plans

  • Order Parts

  • Review design with sponsor.

  • Begin machining of testing rig.

  • Material analysis before and after testing.

  • Create Operations Manual