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Developing GIS indicators and metrics. David Theobald Natural Resource Ecology Lab Colorado State University. Goals of indicator development. Develop and evaluate landscape-level indicators suitable for spatial and temporal analyses of EMAP data

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developing gis indicators and metrics
Developing GIS indicators and metrics

David Theobald

Natural Resource Ecology Lab

Colorado State University

goals of indicator development
Goals of indicator development

Develop and evaluate landscape-level indicators suitable for spatial and temporal analyses of EMAP data

Investigate limitations of currently-available data and offer new, robust methodologies

current effort
Current effort
  • Linkage between watershed and hydrologic networks
  • Refine surrogates with direct measures of area and discharge
  • GIS-based tools
    • RWTools for ArcView
    • Catchment delineation & discharge in ArcGIS
1 watershed hydrological network linkage
1. Watershed–hydrological network linkage
  • “…in every respect, the valley rules the stream.” – Hynes 1975
  • Indirect measures based on hydrological properties (e.g., Strahler order, drainage density, etc.)
distance
Distance:
  • As the crow flies (Euclidean)
distance1
Distance:
  • As the crow flies
  • As the seed floats (downstream)
distance2
Distance:
  • As the crow flies
  • As the seed floats
  • As the fish swims (down & up stream)
distance3
Distance:
  • As the crow flies
  • As the seed floats
  • As the fish swims (down & up stream)
  • Upstream length
    • mainstem (2)
    • arbolate (1+2+3+4)
distance4
Distance:
  • As the crow flies
  • As the seed floats
  • As the fish swims
  • Upstream length
  • Network (dams, fragmentation)
what indicators measure watershed stream linkage
What indicators measure watershed-stream linkage?
  • Length of stream line
    • Dam alteration of flow at a downstream gauge?
  • RWTools extension (ArcView v3.2)
slide11

Upstream

66 km

Mainstem

Upstream

37 km

Network

16 km (down)

6 km (up)

Downstream

298 km

2 direct measures of discharge
2. Direct measures of discharge
  • Surrogates developed, e.g. Strahler order:

The usefulness of stream order assumes, with a sufficiently large sample, that order is proportional to stream discharge

– Strahler 1957

  • Alternatives:
    • basin area
    • discharge
delineate reach catchments
Delineate reach catchments
  • Robust method (no pre-processing)
  • 1 to 1 relationship NHD reach and catchment
  • “Grow” watershed from reach line based on flow direction iteratively
stream discharge
Stream discharge
  • Precipitation

D = C * P

slide17

20 acft

8 acft

10 acft

slide19

R2=0.7282

P-value=3.407e-006

stream discharge1
Stream discharge
  • Encouraging preliminary results
  • Additional factors (Infiltration, E.T.):
    • Geology
    • Land cover
    • Exposure

D = f(C, G, L, E)

3 gis based tools
3. GIS-based tools
  • Interactive query and analysis of watersheds (RWTools) (ArcView v3.2)
  • ArcGIS Geometric network
plans for next year
Plans for next year
  • Initial release of GIS tools:
    • RWTools for ArcGIS
    • Functional-based spatial weights
spatial weights
Spatial weights

W =

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0

1

1

2

3

5

4

functional weighting
Functional weighting

W =

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0

0.2 0.8 0 0.2 0.8 0 0

0.1 0.2 1.0 0.1 0.2 1.0 0

1

1

3

2

4

5

7

6

E.g., downstream hydrology

functional weighting1
Functional weighting

W =

0 1 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 0

0 1 0 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 1 0

1

1

3

2

4

5

7

6

E.g., macroinvertebrates

plans for next year1
Plans for next year
  • Initial release of GIS tools:
  • Perennial/intermittent frame problem in western US
  • Development of network fragmentation indices