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BIOMOLECULES
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  1. BIOMOLECULES

  2. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION… We will be repeating these ALL year! Yesterday: Atoms  Molecules  Macromolecules… Today we will dig into the four macromolecules that are essential for life to exist.

  3. What are the 4 biomolecules? TODAY TOMORROW WE TYPICALLY GET BIOMOLECULES FROM FOOD… THIS IS WHY WE MUST EAT IN THE FIRST PLACE! THE BIOMOLECULES SERVE TO KEEP ORGANISMS ALIVE. • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Nucleic Acids • Proteins

  4. #1: CARBOHYDRATES ARE SUGARS! We get 4 kilocalories per gram of carb that we eat!

  5. What are Carbohydrates? IMPORTANT! • Most common organic molecule • Function: Primary energy source our body needs • Elements present: C, H, O (1:2:1 ratio) • Monomer (building block):Monosaccharides (Glucose is most common) • Polymer:Polysaccharides (starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin) • Examples: Chocolate, Bread, Pasta, Fruits, Vegetables (ALL FROM PLANTS!!!)

  6. Sugars that make up Carbs I am a polysaccharide! • Single sugar: monosaccharide • Ex: glucose , fructose (in fruits) • 2 monosaccharides: disaccharide • Ex: maltose, sucrose • 3+ monosaccharides: polysaccharide • Ex: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and Chitin

  7. Types of polysaccharides I am formed in the Liver! • Starch: • Used for energy storage in plants • Potatoes, pasta and rice are starches • They provide a quick form of energy for the body • Glycogen: • Used for energy storage in animals

  8. More Polysaccharides GIVES US FIBER!!! • Cellulose: • Provides structural support in plants (found in the cell wall) • Chitin: • Found in exoskeletens of arthropods (insects, spiders) • Found in cell wall of some fungi

  9. Structure of Carbohydrates • Remember: Elements are C, H, and O • Primarily in a Ring shape (but not always)

  10. Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!

  11. #2: LIPIDS ARE FATS We get 9 kcals per gram Of fat that we consume.

  12. Lipids • Function: Store energy, Insulates your body, and make up the cell membrane! • Elements: C-H-O • Monomer (Building blocks): glycerol & 3 fatty acids • Polymer: Phospholipids, triglycerides • Example: Steroids, cholesterol, fats, Oils, Nuts, Waxes, and make up part of the cell membrane!

  13. Lipids Important! • Lipids are Hydrophobic (water fearing) and do not dissolve in water! • Lipids can be: • Saturated: The bonds between all the carbons are single bonds. • Solid at room temperature • Mainly animal fats (bacon grease, lard) • Unsaturated: There is at least one double or triple bond between carbons present. • Liquid at room temperature • Mainly plant based fats (olive oil, peanut oil) as well as oily fish (Tuna, Sardines)

  14. Lipid Structure Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats CALLED HYDROCARBONS! • Remember: Elements present are C, H, O • Long strands of Carbon and Hydrogen

  15. Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!

  16. BIOMOLECULES PART 2 PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS!

  17. #3: PROTEINS BUILD US We get 4 kcals per gram Of protein that we consume.

  18. Proteins Proteins make up the structure of living things… Hair, nails, skin, bones, muscle, etc are all built by protein! • Function of proteins • Transport molecules in and out of the cell • Control the speed of chemical reactions • Used for growth and repair

  19. Proteins NITROGEN IS PRESENT, NOW! • Elements: C-H-O-N • Monomer (Building Block): amino acids (20 different ones!) • Polymer: proteins (tons) • Examples of proteins: hemoglobin in red blood cells, albumin in eggs, enzymes that control reactions in the body, and antibodies • Found in: fish, eggs, meat

  20. Protein Structure • Remember: Elements are C, H, O, and N • “R” groups represent one of the 20 Amino Acids! (so, each amino acid has something different in that spot)

  21. Why are amino acids important? • When groups of amino acids are joined together a protein is formed • There are 20 kinds of amino acids • They consist of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group NH2 • Peptide bonds form between amino acids (polypeptide = many peptide bonds = protein!)

  22. Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!

  23. #4: NUCLEIC ACIDS These biomolecules are not necessarily from food

  24. Nucleic acids Energy carrier Genetic code! • Function: • Provide our genetic information • Holds the instructions to make proteins. • Elements: C-H-O-N-P • Monomer : nucleotides • A nucleotide is made up of: • Sugar • Phosphate • Nitrogen Base: A, T, G, C, or U • Polymer: DNA, RNA and ATP Recipe for proteins

  25. Structure of Nucleic Acid

  26. Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!