Finding Your Way: Pathways to Career Success in Drug Abuse Research Lula A. Beatty, Ph.D. Special Populations Office, National Institute on Drug Abuse/NIH Miami, 2011
Guiding Questions • What do I need to have a successful career in sponsored drug abuse and addiction research? • What role can NIDA and NIH play in advancing my research career? What do they offer me? • What do I need to do to have a fulfilling research career?
Objectives • Brief overview of NIDA • Introduction to the Special Populations Office • Brief Descriptions of Pertinent Programs
People • People to • listen • guide and navigate • open doors • teach • critique • confirm your competency • identify resources • provide opportunities • share/give credit • encourage/console/carry you when you need it • show you the money
Money • Money to • Pursue scholarly activities/ Pay tuition • Ensure physical well-being (e.g., food and shelter) • Have/Support your family • Participate in career and professional development activities, e.g., attend CPDD • Stay sane, reduce stress • Buy things
Things • Things such as • Equipment • Books • Trips • Workshops • Research data/expenses • Training and career development experiences • Computer software • Services (editing, library)
NIH NCI NIBIB NIDDK NIDA NCRR NCMHD NIAAA NIAID NIEHS NIGMS NCCAM NICHD NIMH NIA NIDCD NEI NINDS NHGRI NIAMS NIDCR NHLBI NINR NLM FIC CIT CSR CC
NIH 101 • 27 (changing!) institutes and centers (ICs)with distinct disease or research mission, separate budget, and administrative autonomy • Common NIH mechanismsavailable to but not required of ICs • Unique programs offered by ICs • Grantees are institutions, not individuals • Common review criteria and system
NIH 101 • Primary missionis to uncover new knowledge that will lead to better health for everyone • Research is primary activity (not service, demonstrations, evaluations) • Research training and health information dissemination are other key activities
National Institutes of Health Resources • Has annual budget of about $30 billion dollars • Supports about 50,000 + extramural projects annually • Supports about 18,000 pre- and post-docs • Has staff of about 18,000 • Supports about 1200 intramural projects • Is currently in an period of budget decline
NIH and NIDA Missions • NIH Science in pursuit of fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that knowledge to extend healthy life and reduce the burdens of illness and disability • NIDA To lead the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction, through support and conduct of research across a broad range of disciplines ensuring rapid and effective dissemination and use of research results to improve prevention, treatment and policy
Substance Abuse: The Nation’s Number One Health Problem (Schneider Institute for Health Policy, 2001) • One in four US deaths can be attributed to ATOD (alcohol, tobacco and other drugs) • Economic burden of substance abuse to the US economy is $414 billion annually (alcohol abuse alone is about $166 billion) • One dollar out of every $14 of the nation’s health care bill is spent to treat those suffering from smoking-related illnesses • Drug offenders account for more than one-third of the growth in the state prison population and more than 80% of federal inmates since 1985
Substance Abuse: The Nation’s Number One Health Problem(Schneider Institute for Health Policy, 2001) • Children from families with substance-abusing parents are more likely to have problems with delinquency, poor school performance and emotional difficulties • Six to eleven percent of elderly patients admitted to hospitals exhibit symptoms of alcoholism as do 20 percent of elderly in psychiatric wards and 14 percent in emergency rooms • For American women age 60 and over, substance abuse and addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, and psychoactive prescription drugs are at epidemic levels
Leading causes of death and actual causes of death in the United States, 2000
World Health Organization: Causes of Disability by Illness(Insel& Scolnick, 2006) • Mental illness 26.1 • Alcohol and drug use 11.5 • Respiratory diseases 7.6 • Musculoskeletal diseases 6.8 • Sense organ diseases 6.4 • Cardiovascular diseases 5.0 • Dementias 4.8 • Injuries 4.7 • Digestive diseases 3.4
Drug Use in the United States • About 20.1 million Americans aged 12 and over were current illicit drug users in 2008 (8% of the population) • About 70.9 million Americans aged 12 and over were current users of tobacco products; about 59.8 million used cigarettes • About 126.8 million Americans (51.6 percent of the population) aged 12 and over were current users of alcohol; 58.1 million were binge drinking; 17.3 million were heavy drinkers • Rates of use is decreasing between boys and girls (girls’ rate is increasing to equal that of boys) • Rates and patterns of use vary by race/ethnicity and gender • Men use more than women
Persons with Substance Dependence/Abuse, 2008 • 22.2 million persons were dependent on substances • 18.3 million were dependent on alcohol (7.3% of the population) • 7 million were dependent on illicit drugs • 4.2 on marijuana • 1.7 on pain relievers • 1.4 on cocaine (The U.S. population in 2009 was about 307 million people)
Addiction A state in which an organism engages in a compulsive behavior • Behavior is reinforcing (rewarding or pleasurable) • Loss of control in limiting intake
How Do People Become Addicted? Something happens in the brain and the environment: Research is needed to understand the “something” so that it can be understood and effectively prevented and treated
NIDA Resources • Has a knowledgeable staff with mission and interests directly matched to yours • Supports a great majority of the world’s research on the health aspects of drug abuse and addiction • Has an annual budget of about $1 billion • Is a leading supporter of behavioral research on HIV/AIDS • Supports primarily extramural, investigator initiated research • Has commitment to research and career development • Has commitment to diversity in research scientists and research programs • Supports research across the disciplines
Division of Basic Neurosciences & Behavior Research Division of Pharmacotherapies & Medical Consequences of DrugAbuse DavidShurtleff, PhD Phil Skolnick, Ph.D. NIDA National Institute on Drug Abuse Office of the Director Nora D. Volkow, MD Special Populations Office Lula Beatty, Ph.D. AIDS Research Program Jacques Normand, Ph.D. Director Timothy P. Condon, Ph.D. Deputy Director Mary Affeldt Associate Director for Management Office of Extramural Affairs Office of Planning & Resource Management Office of Science Policy & Communications Center for the Clinical Trials Network Intramural Research Program TeresaLevitin, PhD MaryAffeldt Susan Weiss BettyTai, PhD Division of Epidemiology, Services & Prevention Research Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Development & Behavioral Treatment JosephFrascella, PhD Wilson Compton, MD, MPE
Division of Basic Neurosciences & Behavior Research • Models of Addiction • Pain and Analgesia • Cognitive Processes • Vulnerability to Drug Abuse • Neuropsychopharmacology of Drugs of Abuse • Genetic Basis of Vulnerability of Drug Addiction • Neuroimmune Relationships including Studies of HIV/AIS Related to Neural or Infectivity Processes
Division of Pharmacotherapies & Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse • Medications Research (medications for treatment of cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, opiates, marijuana, club drugs and hallucinogens, prescription medications, non-chemical dependencies such as pathological gambling • Chemistry and Pharmaceutics • Clinical/Medical Branch
Division of Clinical Neuroscience and Behavioral Research • Clinical Neuroscience • Clinical neurobiology of addiction • Cognitive neuroscience • Neurobiology of treatment • Biological etiology • Behavioral Treatment • Behavioral therapies development • Pharmacotherapy • AIDS risk reduction • Comorbid Mental and Drug Abuse Disorders • Drug abuse in primary settings
Division of Epidemiology, Services & Prevention Research: Major Goals • Promote the development of new theoretical approaches to epidemiology, services and prevention research • Determine how intrapersonal and environmental factors interact with each other and with genetic factors, across development in the course of drug abuse/addictions • Blend science and services to measurably impact public health outcomes
Clinical Trials Network • Conducting studies of behavioral, pharmacological, and integrated behavioral and pharmacological treatment interventions of therapeutic effect in rigorous, multi-site clinical trials to determine effectiveness across a broad range of community-based treatment settings and diversified patient populations; and • Ensuring the transfer of research results to physicians, clinicians, providers, and patients.
To Thine Own Self Be True Do you really want to do research? Assess your motivation to do research • Personal passion or commitment • Want to make a difference or contribution through research • Institutional or professional requirement • Want to be competitive , recognized and valued for research in academia, among peers • Want the prestige and power that research brings • Want to be listened to, not dismissed What’s your bottom line?
Barriers: Racial/Ethnic Minority Scientists • Do not apply • Mistrust/Rejection of NIDA/NIH • Little/No experience with sponsored research including grant application development • Limited awareness of range of research opportunities especially research training and career development opportunities • Not in a research rich environment (e.g., mentors, colleagues, graduate students, equipment, space) • Isolated in research rich environment (e.g., minorities in majority institutions) • Conflict between service, teaching and research
How Will You Be Evaluated?NIH Review Criteria • Significance: Does this study address an important problem? If the aims of the application are achieved, how will scientific knowledge or clinical practice be advanced? What will be the effect of these studies on the concepts, methods, technologies, treatments, services, or preventative interventions that drive this field? • Approach: Are the conceptual or clinical framework, design, methods, and analyses adequately developed, well integrated, well reasoned, and appropriate to the aims of the project? Does the applicant acknowledge potential problem areas and consider alternative tactics?
NIH Review Criteria • Environment: Does the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Do the proposed studies benefit from unique features of the scientific environment, or subject populations, or employ useful collaborative arrangements? Is there evidence of institutional support?
NIH Review Criteria • Innovation: Is the project original and innovative? For example: Does the project challenge existing paradigms or clinical practice; address an innovative hypothesis or critical barrier to progress in the field? Does the project develop or employ novel concepts, approaches, methodologies, tools, or technologies for this area? • Investigators: Are the investigators appropriately trained and well suited to carry out this work? Is the work proposed appropriate to the experience level of the principal investigator and other researchers? Does the investigative team bring complementary and integrated expertise to the project(if applicable)?
Assess Your Readiness and Capacity To Do Research Using NIH Review Criteria • Available time - Personal and professional • Commitment – Self and employer • Knowledge of the problem area, especially research already done, significance of the proposed research, needs of the community, neglected/understudied issues, content and methodological research issues, leaders in the field
Assess Your Readiness and Capacity To Do Research: NIH Review Criteria • Research experience you have • Publications in proposed/related research area • Previous supported research/Principal Investigator • Research administration experience
Assess Your Readiness and Capacity To Do Research: NIH Review Criteria • Research Support Available To You - Institution (e.g., Office of Sponsored Research, office space, clerical assistance) • Collaborations/Access to people and systems - Graduate students/Research staff support - Colleagues with research experience
Should I be doing NIH-sponsored research?Yes, if… • You are ready to make the needed long-term commitment • You are ready for frustration and rejection • You are ready for opportunity and acceptance
Special Populations Office: Vision and Goals • Preparing underrepresented researchers • Stimulating/Encouraging research that will lead to more effective drug abuse and drug abuse related prevention and treatment approaches for racial/ethnic minority and other health disparity populations • Increasing the number of diverse scholars, racial/ethnic minority researchers engaged in drug abuse and related research
Major Programs • Diversity Supplement Program • Summer Research with NIDA • Research Development Seminar Series • Diversity-promoting Institutions Drug Abuse Research Program (DIDARP) • Expert Racial/Ethnic Minority Work Groups • Asian American/Pacific Islander Researchers and Scholars • National Hispanic Science Network • African American Researchers and Scholars • American Indian/Alaska Native Researchers and Scholars NIDA has a summer intramural program, Baltimore; contact Dr. Jean Cadet
SPO Major Programs • Diversity Supplement Program • Summer Research with NIDA • Research Development Seminar Series • Diversity-promoting Institutions Drug Abuse Research Program (DIDARP) • National Hispanic Science Network • Expert Racial/Ethnic Minority Work Groups • Asian American/Pacific Islander Researchers and Scholars • African American Researchers and Scholars • American Indian/Alaska Native Researchers and Scholars
SPO Staff • Pamela Goodlow • Program Official • Diversity Supplement Program • Tamara Willis, Ph.D. • Summer Research with NIDA • Work Groups • Flair Lindsey • Research Seminar Series • Other Student Support Programs
SPO Staff • Ana Anders, MSW • National Hispanic Science Network • Asian American/Pacific Islander Work Group • Charlotte Annan • Office Support
Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research • NIH-wide program (Research Supplements to Promote Diversity in Health-Related Research PA-08-190) • Supplements certain active grants that have sufficient time • ICs vary on participation and implementation • Provides mentoring/training for an identified individual from underrepresented or disadvantaged population • Racial/Ethnic Minority • Disabled • Disadvantaged Background
Diversity Supplements • Supports persons at five levels: • High school • Undergraduates • Graduate students • Post doctoral • Investigators • Type/Amount of support varies with levels • Review by NIDA committee with program representatives (exception: undergrads reviewed within office)
Diversity Supplement Awards New & Continuing FY 1994 – FY 2010
New Diversity (Minority) Supplement Awards FY 1994 – FY 2010 Gender, Level of Support & Ethnicity
Minority Supplement Recipients, 1995 and 2000 • 72 recipients • No. and percent who submitted applications to NIH: 27, 37.5% • No. and percent awarded NIH grants: 12, 44.4% of those who submitted applications • No. and percent of recipients published (PubMed): 8, 66.7% of those with grants
Diversity Supplement Recipients: Current NIH Submission and Funding Overview • Data obtained from NEPS/QVR search • Current refers to years 2005 – present • Identified 24 applicants, not exhaustive • 15 (62%) are female • 11 (46% ) are African Americans; 10 (46%) are Hispanic, 1 Native American, 1 Asian • 14 (58%) are currently funded (excludes those funded previously, i.e., funding recently ended) • 13 currently funded by NIDA • Funding awards include: RO1, KO1,RO3, F31