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Foundation Literacy P-12 Loddon Mallee Region. CONTENTS . Breakthrough Framework P 3 Literacy Beliefs P 4 Climate for Learning P 6 Effective Literacy in Classrooms P 7

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slide1

Foundation Literacy

P-12

Loddon Mallee Region

contents
CONTENTS
  • Breakthrough Framework P 3
  • Literacy Beliefs P 4
  • Climate for Learning P 6
  • Effective Literacy in Classrooms P 7
  • Gradual Release of Responsibility P 8
  • Literacy Elements P 9
  • Read Aloud P 10
  • Shared Reading P 13
  • Guided Reading P 17
  • Independent Reading P 21
  • Quality Speaking and Listening P 26
  • Write Aloud P 31
  • Shared Writing P 34
  • Guided Writing P 37
  • Independent Writing P 40
  • Observation and Assessment P 44
  • References P 47
  • Resources P 48

Last Updated July 2009 2

slide3

Precision

Personalisation

Appropriate Pedagogical experiences

Daily Instruction

Assessment Data

Readiness to learn

Precision

Building

Leadership

Capacity

Personalisation

MoralPurpose

Professional

Learning

Professional Learning

Focused daily learning of teachers individually and collectively

‘Breakthrough Framework’

Breakthrough- Fullan,Hill & Crevola

3

literacy beliefs
LITERACY BELIEFS
  • All students come to school with individual strengths, needs and diverse literacy experiences
  • Parents and the wider community are partners in the success of school literacy learning
  • All teachers are teachers of literacy
  • Extended blocks of time are essential to practice and apply skills and strategies, modelled by teachers and by other students
  • Immersion in meaningful print, and access to a rich array of texts develops literacy learning

4

literacy beliefs cont
LITERACY BELIEFS (CONT)

6. Whole class, small group and individual instruction, allows students to learn from instruction and from each other

7. Students become independent, experienced readers and writers when each day includes time to be read to, to read with peers and to undertake independent reading and writing challenges

8. Students learn literacy best when they have real life purposes for reading and writing

5

climate for learning
CLIMATE FOR LEARNING

Strong literacy learning environments provide

students with choices, responsibilities and the

opportunity to interact as they read, write, speak,

listen and view.

Classrooms are settings where interactive and

individual activity takes place, supported by

organisation and access to essential

resources.

6

effective literacy in classrooms
EFFECTIVE LITERACY IN CLASSROOMS
  • A range of literacy elements should be taught in classrooms each day
  • High quality instruction and effective teaching for each student across a range of literacy elements
  • Reflection time follows each reading and writing workshop. Students question, analyse and discuss their own and others’ learning
  • Reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing are interwoven
  • Two hours uninterrupted literacy time – Primary
  • Focused daily instructional time – Secondary

7

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GRADUAL RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY

Role of the teacher

MODELLING

The teacher demonstrates and explains the literacy focus being taught. This is achieved by thinking aloud the mental processes and modelling the reading, writing, speaking and listening

SHARING

The teacher continues to demonstrate the literacy focus, encouraging students to contribute ideas and information

GUIDING

The teacher provides scaffolds for students to use the literacy focus. Teacher provides feedback

APPLYING

The teacher offers support and encouragement when necessary

The student works independently to apply the use of literacy focus

DEGREE OF CONTROL

Students work with help from the teacher and peers to practise the use of the literacy focus

Students contribute ideas and begin to practise the use of the literacy focus in whole class situations

The student participates by actively attending to the demonstrations

8

Pearson & Gallagher

Role of the student

8

literacy elements
LITERACY ELEMENTS
  • Read Aloud
  • Shared Reading
  • Guided Reading
  • Independent Reading
  • Write Aloud
  • Shared Writing
  • Guided Writing
  • Independent Writing

SPEAKING & LISTENING

OBSERVATION

&

ASSESSMENT

9

read aloud description
READ ALOUD Description

Reading quality literature and text to students is

referred to as “Read Aloud”.

Read Aloud must occur several times daily for a

variety of instructional purposes.

It should involve the whole class, small groups and

individual students.

10

read aloud classroom indicators instruction
READ ALOUD Classroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Student engagement is evident during text reading. For example, debating, imagining, identifying, laughing, spontaneous comment
  • Teachers demonstrate reading as a valuable and enjoyable activity and model this
  • Teachers use a variety of carefully selected texts to expose students to language structures, how texts ‘work’ and how to gain meaning from text
  • Instructional focus may be problem solving, fact finding, text types, analysing, inferring, author study

11

read aloud classroom indicators resources
READ ALOUDClassroom Indicators- Resources
  • Many quality texts, diverse in style, topic and level of difficulty, well displayed and easily accessible
  • Examples of text may include magazines, texts and newspapers
  • ICT, Listening Centres
  • Well resourced, inviting classroom and central libraries
  • Blocks of time scheduled for reading activity

12

shared reading description
SHARED READING Description

Shared Reading is whole class teaching in a

supportive environment, using enlarged print and

high quality text.

Teachers select text well suited to strategic

instruction.

Students and teachers share the task of reading a

text which might otherwise prove too challenging.

13

shared reading classroom indicators instruction
SHARED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Clear instructional focus e.g.

- Text features and structures - Problem-solving

- Re-reading and self monitoring - Finding evidence

  • Demonstration of how the reading process works
  • Teaching for effective use of reading strategies
  • High level questioning
  • Where appropriate, teachers schedule opportunities to promote familiarity and memorisation through repeated readings
  • Daily instruction – 20 minutes

14

shared reading classroom indicators instruction continued
SHARED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued)
  • Using enlarged text students discover what is relevant to becoming a reader – challenging and deepening thinking, questioning, self monitoring, self correcting, sampling, confirming
  • Using enlarged text to enrich literacy experiences e.g. varying the way texts are presented to clearly emphasise enjoyment
  • Using enlarged text to analyse different text types and styles

15

shared reading classroom indicators resources
SHARED READING Classroom Indicators- Resources
  • Many short, enlarged print text selections
    • charts – short factual and narrative
    • text selections e g. science experiment, newspaper reports, magazines and current affairs websites
    • songs, chants, poems and rhymes
    • big books – all text types
  • Enlarged texts and charts well displayed in easily accessible storage
  • Interactive whiteboard, data projector & overhead projector

16

guided reading description
GUIDED READING Description

The teacher and a small group of students talk,

read and think their way purposefully through a

common text, working collaboratively.

17

guided reading classroom indicators instruction
GUIDED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Teachers:
    • group and regroup students using ongoing observation and assessment
    • carefully plan strategic reading instruction and explicitly teach small groups of students
    • select texts appropriate for the common instructional needs of the group
    • promote active engagement in thoughtful group discussion
  • Time scheduled daily - each group approx. 20 minutes

18

guided reading classroom indicators instruction continued
GUIDED READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued)
  • Students, with assistance by teacher:
    • engage in text orientation and activate prior knowledge, connections and thinking
    • deepen comprehension
    • develop prediction skills and understanding of the reading and writing processes
    • use other students to help solve problems
    • question ideas of the author
    • ask questions a reader asks when reading

19

guided reading classroom indicators resources
GUIDED READING Classroom Indicators- Resources
  • Adequate variety of texts in multiple copies - a set of 6 copies and an additional copy for the teacher
  • Small group organisation & tasks are clearly defined and visible e.g. management board

20

independent reading description
INDEPENDENT READING Description

Independent reading is central to successful

reading development.

Students select and read engaging and interesting

material daily, independently and individually.

They share information about what they read.

21

independent reading classroom indicators instruction
INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indicators- Instruction

Time must be scheduled daily for independent reading to occur. A structured take home reading program for all primary students is expected.

For secondary students, a structured reading program is essential in addition to library borrowing.

Students:

  • promote books to others – share time is scheduled
  • practice reading at home each night and a home and school partnership is fostered
  • practice what has been taught in whole class, small group and individual reading activities

22

independent reading classroom indications instruction continued
INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indications- Instruction (Continued)

Teachers:

  • act as models, promoting reading of quality literature and texts
  • discuss and enjoy texts with individual students, observing what they know and can do
  • provide guidance with text choice - noticing when students choose texts beyond their control
  • guide choices to incorporate just the right amount of reading challenge
  • monitor choice to ensure a broad range of successful and enjoyable reading experiences

23

independent reading classroom indication resources
INDEPENDENT READING Classroom Indication- Resources
  • Classroom environments foster enjoyment, and appreciation of reading
  • A range of high quality literature is accessible in classrooms, and central libraries
  • Wide range of interest and difficulty levels
  • School library is closely linked to classroom reading programs
  • Partner reading arranged with peers and adults
  • Well organised take home and library programs

24

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The teacher’s role changes from one of initiating, modelling and guiding to one of providing and then observing, acknowledging and responding. (Mooney)

25

quality speaking listening description
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGDescription

Quality conversations take place with students daily, using focussed dialogue as the catalyst for teaching and learning.

Oral language requires formal and informal experiences to convey and receive meaning.

It involves the development and demonstration of knowledge about the appropriate oral language for particular audience and occasions.

Speaking and listening involves whole class, small group and individual instruction, and promotes talk with and by individual students.

26

quality speaking listening classroom indicators instruction
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Rich, purposeful speaking and listening opportunities, which are both spontaneous and intentional, are provided so students can formulate and articulate ideas
  • Students experience a broad range of speaking and listening activities e.g. public speaking, individual, group and whole class discussion, reports, interviews etc
  • ‘Talk’ is integral to all domains – eg. reasoning, analysing, debating, persuading, explaining, and reflecting
  • Vocabulary is intentionally developed to enable students to clearly express opinions, understandings and intentions

27

quality speaking listening classroom indicators instruction continued
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued)
  • Students are involved in presentations both formal and informal. They are aware of the range of contexts, purposes and audiences
  • Students listen attentively to factual spoken texts and identify topics, retell information accurately, ask clarifying questions, contribute information and justify opinions
  • The best speaking and listening behaviours are modelled by both students and teachers e.g. eye contact, intonation, expression

28

quality speaking listening classroom indicators instruction continued29
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction (Continued)
  • Students give their own talks and presentations. They learn from and build on, the ideas of others
  • Students participate in story telling experiences
  • Teachers observe and use student experiences to initiate and develop further conversations

29

quality speaking listening classroom indicators resources
QUALITY SPEAKING & LISTENINGClassroom Indicators- Resources
  • Book Club and Literature Circles which require students to take responsibility for expressing opinions and guiding workshop group activities
  • Organisational structures which provide speaking opportunities each day e.g. share/reflection time, conferences, readers theatre, class meetings
  • Models of quality speaking and listening

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write aloud description
WRITE ALOUDDescription

Writing Aloud occurs when a teacher writes in front

of students. The teacher models techniques,

frameworks & behaviours, verbalising thinking and

what is being written.

It could involve whole class, small groups and

individual students.

Writing aloud increases student interest and

motivation and develops the quality of writing.

31

write aloud classroom indicators instruction
WRITE ALOUDClassroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Teachers demonstrate writing as a valuable and enjoyable activity and show this through their own personal writing
  • The text being composed can be seen by all students
  • The teacher makes explicit what she is doing, both authorial and secretarial [the thinking, ideas, content, discussion of vocabulary, format, layout, spacing, handwriting, spelling, punctuation]
  • Students observe the teacher in the act of writing
  • Sessions are brief e.g. 10 minutes

32

write aloud classroom indicators resources
WRITE ALOUDClassroom Indicators- Resources
  • Text developed is displayed and used as reference point
  • Easel
  • Chart pad
  • Interactive whiteboard
  • Overhead projector
  • Large textas
  • Chalk board

33

shared writing description
SHARED WRITINGDescription

Shared writing is defined as the teacher and the student composing writing collaboratively. The teacher acts as scribe and expert and makes decisions about where students may scribe.

The teacher enables, supports and encourages. They invite students to participate and enjoy writing experiences they might not be able to do on their own.

Writing is negotiated, discussed, and jointly decided by students and the teacher.

34

shared writing classroom indicators instruction
SHARED WRITINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Planned and explicit focus in writing skills and strategies is based on student needs across the domains
  • Teachers leads students to develop more complex ideas and language and foster their critical awareness as writers
  • Teachers scaffold the learning
  • Teachers lead students to make explicit what they are doing- the thinking, format, layout, spacing, handwriting, spelling, punctuation and discussion of vocabulary
  • Sessions are brief e.g. 15 minutes daily

35

shared writing classroom indicators resources
SHARED WRITINGClassroom Indicators- Resources
  • Text developed is displayed and used as reference point
  • Easel
  • Chart pad
  • Interactive whiteboard
  • Overhead projector
  • Large textas
  • Chalk board

36

guided writing description
GUIDED WRITING Description

The teacher facilitates writing with a group of

students of similar needs. Students are observed

closely and write with the scaffolded support of the

teacher. Students do the writing.

Students receive explicit instruction and feedback.

They are guided to write more complex texts than

would usually be written independently.

Guided writing extends the thinking of students and

generally builds on the instruction of Shared

Writing.

37

guided writing classroom indicators instruction
GUIDED WRITINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Scheduled within writing workshop
  • Students are given opportunities for choice and decision making
  • Teachers suggest, support and assist students to clarify their ideas and understandings as writers
  • Teachers:
    • model questions that help the writer to clarify
    • expect students to begin asking similar questions of each other
    • expect student to eventually ask questions of themselves
  • Teachers confer with individual students about their writing

38

guided writing classroom indicators resources
GUIDED WRITINGClassroom Indicators-Resources
  • References e.g. charts, writing samples, dictionaries
  • Students have access to a variety of writing supplies: variety of paper, books, markers, pencils, crayons, and well resourced publishing centres
  • Information about authors
  • Computers
  • Quality literature and texts used as models for writing - print rich classrooms

39

independent writing description
INDEPENDENT WRITING Description

Independent writing focuses on students taking

charge of their own writing. Students apply

understandings, processes and strategies learnt

through supported teaching elements.

It builds fluency, establishes the writing habit,

makes personal connections, explores meanings,

promotes critical thinking and encourages the

writer to use writing as a natural, pleasurable,

self chosen activity.

40

independent writing classroom indicators instruction
INDEPENDENT WRITINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Students may choose their own topics, draft, revise, edit and sometimes publish their own writing
  • Students take risks and have responsibility for working through challenges and problem solving
  • Students refer to previous instruction in writing skills and strategies, and this experience is evident when they write

41

independent writing classroom indicators instruction continued
INDEPENDENT WRITINGClassroom Indicators- Instruction (continued)
  • Organisation for peer and teacher conferencing is evident
  • Writing occurs across the curriculum, in a variety of text types and for real life purposes
  • Spelling attempts are viewed as not incorrect but incomplete

42

independent writing classroom indicators resources
INDEPENDENT WRITINGClassroom Indicators- Resources
  • References e.g. charts, writing examples, dictionaries, books, internet
  • Students have access to a variety of writing supplies: variety of paper, books, markers, pencils, crayons, and well resourced publishing centres
  • Information about authors
  • Computers- word processing & investigation
  • Quality literature and texts are used as models for writing - print rich classrooms

43

observation assessment description
OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENTDescription

Assessment is the ongoing process of gathering,

analysing and reflecting on evidence to make

informed and consistent judgements to improve

future student learning.

Systematic observations and data are regularly

gathered and used to build a profile of student

progress.

Ongoing assessment and observation is not

confined to scheduled literacy activities.

44

observation assessment classroom indicators instruction
OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENTClassroom Indicators- Instruction
  • Teachers use evidence of student learning to determine starting points and make judgements on student achievement
  • Teacher and students discuss achievement and future direction of learning
  • Students reflect on, analyse and monitor their own progress
  • Teachers can clearly articulate student progress in discussions with parents and other teachers

45

observation assessment classroom indicators instruction continued
OBSERVATION & ASSESSMENTClassroom Indicators- Instruction (continued)
  • Student progress is tracked and closely monitored. Common school-wide assessment procedures are in place
  • Portfolios and student profiles may be kept for each student
  • Written records of reading behaviour (e.g.Running Records for students in the earlier phases of reading development) are used to make decisions about text choice (level of difficulty) and the important teaching decisions to be made for each student

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references
REFERENCES
  • Breakthrough Fullan Hill and Crevola
  • Literacy Teaching and Learning in Victorian Schools [Paper No 9]
  • Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency Fountas and Pinnell
  • Guided Reading Fountas and Pinnell
  • Conversations Regie Routman
  • Invitations Regie Routman
  • Western Australia First Steps Second Edition
  • Effective Literacy Practice 1-4 and 5-8 NZ Ministry of Education
  • Victorian Essential Learning Standards DEECD
  • Language Enhancement Manual Loddon Mallee Region
  • Reading in Junior Classes NZ Ministry of Education
  • Reading for Life NZ Ministry of Education
  • Dancing With the Pen NZ Ministry of Education
  • Reading To With and By Children Margaret E Mooney
  • www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresources/english/literacy/default.htm

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resources
RESOURCES
  • NAPLAN resources www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/prep10/naplan/index.html
  • AIM resources www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/prep10/aim/aimindex2.html
  • Catching on to Comprehension Pearson
  • A Teachers’ Guide to Genre Ridge
  • Strategies to Engage the Mind of the Learner Billmeyer
  • Skyrider Shared Reading Kit NZ
  • Listening Post Blackline Masters Upper Primary and Middle Primary Rigby
  • Developmental Reading Assessment - Kits A and B
  • WRAP - Writing and Reading Assessment Profile

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