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Why XML is Required - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Why XML is Required. Problem: We want to save the data and retrieve it further or to transfer over the network. This is most common requirement for any business. Solution: Design a format in which the data can saved and understand further.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Why XML is Required

  • Problem: We want to save the data and retrieve it further or to transfer over the network. This is most common requirement for any business.
  • Solution: Design a format in which the data can saved and understand further.
  • - This requirement was first identified by IBM and came up with GML
  • - GML is used only by IBM for internal projects
  • SGML – Standardized General Markup Language
  • - It is an improvement over GML
  • - Initially released by IBM and later took by W3C
        • SGML
        • |
        • |
        • |----HTML
        • |
        • |
        • |----XML
slide2

What is XML

  • W3C - Set some standards to develop markup language.
  • To develop a MARKUP language
    • Declare elements, attributes
    • Set grammar rules (i.e. describe how the above declared elements, attributes can be used)
slide3

XML

  • W3C - Set some standards to develop markup language.
  • To develop a MARKUP language
    • Declare elements, attributes
    • Set grammar rules (i.e. describe how the above declared elements, attributes can be used)
slide4

XML Standards

  • The document must have exactly one top-level element (the document element or root element).
  • All other elements must be nested within it.
  • Elements must be properly nested. That is, if an element starts with another element, it must also end within that same element.
  • Elements must have both start-tag and end-tag.
  • The element-type name in a start-tag must exactly match in the corresponding end-tag.
  • Element-type names are case-sensitive.
slide5

XSD

  • An XML Schema describes the structure of an XML document.
  • An XML Schema tells about
  • - elements that can appear in a document
  • - attributes that can appear in a document
  • - which elements are child elements
  • - the order of child elements
  • - the number of child elements
  • - whether an element is empty or can include text
  • - data types for elements and attributes
  • - default and fixed values for elements and attributes
  • XML Schema supports
  • - to describe allowable document content
  • - to validate the correctness of data
  • - to work with data from a database
  • - to define data facets (restrictions on data)
  • - to define data patterns (data formats)
  • - to convert data between different data types
tags used in xsd
Tags used in XSD:
  • Schema file can contains either
    • Simple element - Element containing only text
    • Complex element – Element containing one or more elements
  • Note: If an element has attribute then the element is treated as complex element
  • Simple Element:
  • <schema> - element is the root element of every XML Schema
  • <element> - used to define element
  • <attribute>- used to define attribute
  • <restriction> - defines the acceptable values for an element or attribute.
    • <minInclusive> - minimum no allowed
    • <maxInclusive> - maximum no allowed
    • < totalDigits> - exact no of digits allowed
    • <enumeration> - limits to set of acceptable values.
    • <pattern> - limit value to series of characters
    • <length> - limit the length of the value
    • <minLength> - minimum length of the value
    • <maxLength> - maximum length of the value
slide7
Cont…
  • Simple Element E.g.:
  • <?xml version="1.0"?><xs:schemaxmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"targetNamespace=" http://manoharsr.wordpress.com "xmlns="http://manoharsr.wordpress.com" elementFormDefault="qualified“>
  • <xs:element name="id" type="xsd:int" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
slide8
Cont…
  • Complex Element:
  • <complexType> - used to define complex element or complex type
  • <complexContent> - extending the compexType with another complexType
  • <extension> - used of extending
  • <xs:element name="employee">  <xs:complexType>    <xs:sequence>      <xs:element name="firstname" type="xs:string"/>      <xs:element name="lastname" type="xs:string"/>    </xs:sequence>  </xs:complexType></xs:element>
slide9
Cont…
  • <xs:element name="employee" type="personinfo"/><xs:element name="student" type="personinfo"/><xs:element name=“customer" type="personinfo"/><xs:complexType name="personinfo">  <xs:sequence>    <xs:element name="firstname" type="xs:string"/>    <xs:element name="lastname" type="xs:string"/>  </xs:sequence></xs:complexType>
slide10
Cont…
  • <xs:element name="employee" type=" fullpersoninfo "/><xs:element name="student" type="personinfo"/><xs:element name=“customer" type=" fullpersoninfo "/>
  • <xs:complexType name="personinfo">  <xs:sequence>    <xs:element name="firstname" type="xs:string"/>    <xs:element name="lastname" type="xs:string"/>  </xs:sequence></xs:complexType><xs:complexType name="fullpersoninfo">  <xs:complexContent>    <xs:extension base="personinfo">      <xs:sequence>        <xs:element name="address" type="xs:string"/>        <xs:element name="city" type="xs:string"/>        <xs:element name="country" type="xs:string"/>      </xs:sequence>    </xs:extension>  </xs:complexContent></xs:complexType>
indicators
Indicators
    • Used to control how the elements are used in the document
    • Order indicators:
    • All - Specifies that all child elements can appear in any order
    • Choice - Specifies that either one child element or another can occur
    • Sequence - Specifies that all child elements should occur in same order
  • Occurrence indicators:
    • maxOccurs - Maximum no of times an element can occur
    • minOccurs - Minimum no of times an element can occur
miscellaneous
Miscellaneous
  • <any> - Enable to extend the xml document with elements not specified in schema
  • Mixed – Allows an element to contain both elements and text
  • XSD
    • <xs:element name=“Receipt">  <xs:complexType mixed="true">    <xs:sequence>
    • <xs:element name=“receiptno" type="xs:positiveInteger"/>      <xs:element name="name" type="xs:string"/>      <xs:element name=“receiptdate" type="xs:date"/>    </xs:sequence>  </xs:complexType></xs:element>
  • XML
    • <letter>  Receipt No< receiptno >123456</ receiptno >.  To < name >Manohar</name>  Date<receiptdate>2012-07-13</receiptdate>.</letter>
namespaces
Namespaces
  • TargetNamespace
  • DefaultNamespace
  • Names with prefix
  • Schema Import
  • Schema Include
xpath
XPATH:
  • Is an path expression to select the nodes from XML document
xpath1
XPATH:

<bookstore> <book> <title lang="eng">Harry Potter</title> <price>29.99</price> </book> <book> <title lang="eng">Learning XML</title> <price>39.95</price> </book></bookstore>

Path Expression Result

bookstore Selects all nodes with the name "bookstore“

/bookstore Selects the root element bookstore

Note: If the path starts with a slash ( / ) it always represents an absolute path to an element!

bookstore/book Selects all book elements that are children of bookstore

//book Selects all book elements no matter where they are in the document

bookstore//book Selects all book elements that are descendant of the bookstore element, no matter where they are under the bookstore element

//@lang Selects all attributes that are named lang

slide16
XSLT
  • Used to transform XML document into XHTML or any other XML document
  • <stylesheet> - Root element that declares xml document as xsl style sheet
  • <template> - template contains rules to apply when a specified node is matched
  • <value-of> - used to extract data from the selected node.
  • <for-each> - used to iterate the array nodes and select the node.
  • <if> - Conditionally selecting the node
  • <choose> - used when you have multiple conditions using <when> and <otherwise>
  • <sort> - sort the output nodes