HANNIBAL. Career after Zama and the manner and impact of his death The destruction of Carthage By Michael Touma. After Zama. After Hannibal was defeated at Zama, Carthage was reduced to the status of a client state and lost all power of enacting its own treaties and diplomacy .
HANNIBAL Career after Zama and the manner and impact of his death The destruction of Carthage By Michael Touma
After Zama • After Hannibal was defeated at Zama, Carthage was reduced to the status of a client state and lost all power of enacting its own treaties and diplomacy. • Rome also demanded the Carthaginian fleet, all warships, save 10 were turned over to Rome along with any remaining war elephants, recognition of the Roman conquests in Spain, and a reparation of no less than 10,000 talents, to be paid in fifty annual installments. • It forced Hannibal to resign as a general.
Despite the treaty enacted in 201 BC, Hannibal was allowed to remain free in Carthage. • By 196 BC, Hannibal had been made a chief magistrate, within the Carthaginian state. • Here, Hannibal was able to promote a modest democracy,reorganisethe revenues and stimulate agriculture and commerce.
Various speculations as to how and why Hannibal left Carthage. Some suggest that Rome, unsettled by the sudden growth in the Carthaginian political scene and renewed prosperity, demanded Hannibal’s surrender. • All sources do indicate that a roman envoy had been sent to Carthage and Hannibal, thinking that Rome would demand his surrender, had fled. • It is made clear though, that by 195 BC, Hannibal had fled into exile.
Many sources make clear that Hannibal moved to join King Antiochus III of Syria. • He was received well by Antiochus III, who at the time was preparing for war with Rome. • It is said that though Antiochus honored Hannibal, he did not trust him with a position of power, and though he allowed him to advise him, little of what Hannibal said was used by the King.
On one occasion he commanded a few ships, which he had been ordered to take from Syria to Asia, and with them he fought against a fleet of the Rhodians in the Pamphylian Sea. • Although in this sea battle his forces were defeated by the superior numbers of their opponents, it is said that he was victorious on the wing where he fought in person. • Hannibal soon left Tyre, he felt that Antiochus would soon surrender him to the Romans, and so he continued to flee for the remainder of his life.
Sources speculate as to where he travelled to and what he accomplished. • Hannibal continued in exile, but the Romans continued to hunt for him. Hannibal was finally trapped by the Romans in Bithynia North-Western Turkey in 183 BC, this time, their was no escape. Refusing to surrender and suffer more humiliation, Hannibal took his own life with a poison he always carried, he was 65 years old. • It is said that he wrote an auto-biography of his life, but when he was eventually discovered, it was said to have been destroyed.
Destruction Of Carthage 149-146 BC • Carthaginians were forbidden to make war anywhere without the consent of Rome, a result of the treaty in the Second Punic war. • Since Hannibal had been exiled, Carthaginians had worked at a peaceful revival of their economy and payment of reparations.
Possibility of Carthage rising again always a threat to Rome. • Romans Paranoid? • If any opportunity arose that would allow Rome to destroy their former enemy, it would be seized upon. • Opportunity came in the form of Mesinissa
Mesinissa leader of the Numidian Cavalry that had helped defeat Hannibal in Zama, established as a powerful client prince to Rome, on the Carthaginian borders. • He was fully aware on the restrictions on Carthage • Attacked the Carthaginian borders frequently
Carthage appeals to Rome were ignored and Rome constantly sided with Mesinissa. • Driven by the fear invoked in his younger years, Marcus Porcius Cato, Cato the Elder, devoted his life to the destruction of Carthage. • This was fuelled when he became aware of the wealth of the city. • All his speeches in the senate ended with, “Carthage must be destroyed”
Further friction between Masinissa in 151 BC, • Carthage knew that they had broken the treaty and feared Roman vengeance • Carthage offered unconditional surrender • Roman senate assured them of their lives, property and constitution and to follow the orders of the consul • Army arrived demanded that Carthage surrender arms and engines of war.
Ultimatum • Abandon the city • Settle at least 10 miles from the sea coast An obvious death sentence for the mercantile society • The result; Carthage refused-took up arms, and defended the city to the last