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CANADA – Early Child Development and Parenting Centres . DECS Corporate Executive Team/District Directors . Adelaide, South Australia. By J. Fraser Mustard Founding President, CIAR Adelaide Thinker in Residence. November 14, 2006.

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Canada early child development and parenting centres l.jpg
CANADA – Early Child Development and Parenting Centres

DECS Corporate Executive Team/District Directors

Adelaide, South Australia

By J. Fraser Mustard

Founding President, CIAR

Adelaide Thinker in Residence

November 14, 2006


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Experience-Based Brain Development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

03-080

Health

Learning

Behaviour


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03-131 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

NEUROSCIENCE


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04-039 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Two Neurons

RECIPIENT NEURON

Axon

Synapse

SIGNAL-SENDING NEURON

Dendrite


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04-212 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Sound

Vision

Smell

Touch

Proprioception

Taste

Neal Halfon


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04-042 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

SENSING PATHWAYS


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Synaptic Density life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

03-012

At Birth

6 Years Old

14 Years Old

Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997.


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Human Brain Development – life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Synapse Formation

01-003

Language

Sensing

Pathways

Higher

(vision, hearing)

Cognitive Function

9

-3

3

1

0

6

4

8

12

16

-6

Months

Years

Conception

AGE

C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000.


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03-002 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Emotional

Stimulus

Amygdala

Hippocampus

-

+

-

+

Hypothalamus

PVN

Cortisol

Cortisol

CRF

PIT

ACTH

Adrenal

Cortex

LeDoux, Synaptic Self


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05-212 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress

Cortisol – Over Production

Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction

Cortisol – Under Production

Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma


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The Myth of the Bell Curve life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Genetics

Nature versus nurture

Genotype

Phenotype - Epigenetics


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04-144 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Epigenetics and Brain Plasticity

Experience and methylation of DNA

Imprints environmental experiences on the fixed genome

Maternal behaviour affects DNA methylation

Can be transmitted to offspring


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06-105 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Epigenetics

According to Dr. Szyf, epigenetic modifications in response to maternal care occur early after birth – critical period. The effects are stable and persist into adulthood.

The Economist, p. 89, Sept 23, 2006


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Serotonin Transporter Gene life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Experience in Early Life - Depression

Age 26

03-089

Depression Risk

.70

SS

S = Short Allele L = Long Allele

.50

SL

LL

.30

No Abuse

Moderate Abuse

Severe Abuse

Early Childhood

A. Caspi, Science, 18 July 2003, Vol 301.


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06-127 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Summary of Brain Development

Environment gene interaction

Critical and sensitive periods in utero, infancy, and young children


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Health Myths life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:


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01-010 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

"Follow up through life of successive

samples of birth has pointed to the

crucial influence of early life on

subsequent mental and physical health

and development."

Acheson, Donald -

Independent Inquiry into

Inequalities in Health

,1998


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Myths life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Behaviour


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06-085 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Early Development and Behaviour

Antisocial

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

(ADHD)

Autism

Depression


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01-012 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour

Significant correlation with registered

criminality (teenage) appeared for language

development at 6, 18, and 24 months

Journal of Abnormal

Stattin, H. et al -

Psychology

102; 369, 1993


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Behaviour life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

02-011

“The aftermath … [of poor early child

development] can appear as depression,

anxiety, suicidal thoughts or post-

traumatic stress – or as aggression,

impulsiveness, delinquency, hyper-

activity or substance abuse.”

Martin Teicher

Scientific American, 2002


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Language & Literacy life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Myths


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04-200 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Early Child Development and Language

Starts early – first 12 months

Sets capability for mastering

multiple languages

Sets literacy and language trajectory


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06-106 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Level 3

Considered minimum for coping with the demands of every day life and work in a complex advanced society.

OECD, 2000


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Document Literacy life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

02-061

1994 – 1998, Ages 16 to 65

Level 1 and 2 Level 4 and 5

Sweden

23%

34.0%

Canada

42%

23.0%

Australia

43%

17.0%

United States

48%

18.0%

Chile

85%

3.0%

Mexico

84%

1.7%

OECD


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06-114 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Socioeconomic Gradients for

Document Literacy Scores

Mean Scores

350

310

Intern’l Mean

U.S.

270

Canada

Australia

230

Sweden

Finland

190

0

3

5

7

9

11

13

15

17

19

Parents’ Education (years)

OECD, 2000


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360 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Sociocultural

00-042

Gradients for

Cuba

Language

320

Scores

By Country

Argentina

Chile

280

Brazil

Language Score

Colombia

Mexico

240

200

8

16

1

4

12

Parents' Education (Years)


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04-153 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Abecedarian Study – Reading

Effect Size

Primary

Grades

Preschool

Preschool &

Primary Grades

1.2

0.8

0.4

0

Age 8

Age 12

Age 15

Age 21

Age at Testing


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05-165 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Trends in Percentages of Reading Performance Levels at Age 17 (1971-2004)

Level 250 +

Level 300 +

Level 350

%

NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress


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06-001 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Success by Ten

Early Child Development

Intervene early

Intervene often

Intervene effectively

Ludwig and Sawhill, Brookings Institution


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ONTARIO life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

What we envision will be a first "tier" program for

early child development, as important as the

elementary and secondary school system and the

post-secondary education system. The system

should consist of community-based centres

operating at the local level within a provincial

framework.

99-103

Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study

Government of Ontario


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ECD and Experience-Based life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Brain Development

99-004

parent-oriented

child-oriented

1

2

3

4

5

6

age

- 0

Components of Early Childhood Development and

Parenting Centres:

Universal – available, accessible, affordable and optional

Parental and non-parental care

Parent- and child-oriented

Quality early child development environments

Responsive relationships and parent involvement


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CANADA life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

ECD Programs Should be

[First Ministers, September 11, 2000]

00-098

Intersectoral

Integrated

Supportive of the child within family and

community

Include children of different abilities

Children in different SES, cultural, and

linguistic circumstances


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CANADA - 2000 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Recommendations

00-134

a. Matching government grants for resource

mobilization from all sectors of community

- private, public, foundations (including

parental fees)

b. Tax credit for private sector initiatives to create

ECD and parenting centres for employees and

community

c. Tax credit for pensioners to work in ECD centres


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CANADA – 2000 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Recommendations

00-135

d. Extend parental leave & benefits to 1 year

for all new parents

e. Child tax credit

f. Affordable to ALL families


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CANADA - 2000 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Recommendations

00-136

To mobilize communities and build capacity,

government funding must be incremental,

predictable and sustained over the long term.


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CANADA life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

$5 Billion additional for Early Child Development – Year 2000

Another $2 Billion in 2002


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06-128 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

QUAD versus Day Care

Quality

Universal

Accessible

Developmental

Government of Canada, 2002


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Canada – New Government life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Harper cancelled funding - 2006.

Mothers better than day care


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03-116 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

OUTCOME

MEASURES


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Early Development Instrument (EDI) life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

03-085

Physical health and well-being

Social knowledge and competence

Emotional health/maturity

Language and cognitive development

Communication skills and general

knowledge


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02-065 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Percentage of Children in Kindergarten Scoring

in Bottom 10% by District - Vancouver

34.5%

15%

27.5%

8.5%

21.5%

EDI, February 2000


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06-030 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

EDI Results – Vancouver Districts

District Income EDI Results

$ % scoring inbottom 10%

1 12,000-24,000 34.5

2 24,000-37,000 27.5

3 37,000-49,000 21.5

4 49,000-62,000 15.0

5 62,000-74,000 8.5


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05-113 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Vancouver

Grade 4 and Grade 7 Tests

Proportion of children failing to meet Grade 4 and Grade 7 test standards correlates strongly with proportion of children vulnerable on the EDI index at time of school entry.


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04-053 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Measuring Readiness for School Learning

Percentage of students who scored in the lowest 10th percentile in 2 or more domains

Over 25%

Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003


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04-055 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Measuring Readiness for School Learning

Percentage of students who scored in the lowest 10th percentile in 2 or more domains

Fewer than 10%

Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003


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04-069 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02)

Proportion of students who achieved level 3 or 4

Over 70%

Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003


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04-067 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Grade 6 EQAO Assessment of Reading (01-02)

Proportion of students who achieved level 3 or 4

Fewer than 40%

Representation of data from “Toronto Report Card on Children”, Vol 5, Update 2003


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06-122 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

AEDI - SA

District % Vulnerable on One

or More Domains

Cooper Pedy 29.4

Leigh Creek 42.1

Port Augusta 43.1

Roxby Downs 15.6

Whyalla 27.4

AEDI S.Australia


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Toronto First Duty life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Establishing ECD-P Centres in five primary schools.

Participants

Toronto School Board

Municipal Government

Toronto Public Health

Atkinson Foundation

United Auto Workers

Founders’ Network


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Toronto First Duty Objective life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

In 2002, five school-community partnerships became Toronto First Duty sites. They undertook to bring together the three early childhood streams of kindergarten, child care and family supports into a seamless service.


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Toronto First Duty Goal life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

The goal of Toronto First Duty is to develop a universally accessible service that promotes the healthy development of children from conception through kindergarten, while at the same time supporting parents to work or study and in their parenting role.


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Toronto First Duty life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Lessons Learned

Pioneered the integration of kindergarten, child care, family support and parenting

Integration – fair

Bruce School – prototype to further integration progress

Application to Ontario Best Start Program


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First Duty - Issues life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Different interpretation continues to dilute program.

Separate funding, legislation and governance hampers building an integrated quality program.

Staff training and equitable recognition and compensation.

Child care regulation and fees.

Quality of principals.


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Role of School Principals life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Must understand factors influencing brain development and the integration of brain pathways.

Play and problem-based learning integration of this understanding.

Ensuring all staff from ages 0 to 12, understand brain development and human development in the early years.


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Is Toronto First Duty a Success? life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Overall the researchers concluded that integrated professional supports improve the quality of early childhood programs and improve outcomes for all parents and children by engaging parents in the school and their child’s early learning and by supporting children’s social, emotional and academic readiness for school.


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04-046 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Council for Early Child Development

Objective:

To establish ECD and Parenting Centres linked to the school system, supported by all sectors of society, including government, that is universally available to all families with young children.


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Problem- life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

based

play

Parental

participation

Resources

for

families

Pre- and

post-natal

supports

Full-day,

full-year

options

Nutrition

Early Child Development & Parenting CentresPutting Science Into Action In Communities

Early child

development

and parenting

centre


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04-045 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

Council for Early Child Development

Chair – Charles Coffey

Vice Chair – Robin Williams

Vice Chair – Jim Grieve

President – Stuart Shanker

401 Richmond St. W., Suite 277

Toronto, ON, M5V 3A8

Telephone: 416-849-1332


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Breaking Myths life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

University Disciplines and Neuroscience - Human Development

History & Evolution

Psychology Education

Health Sciences

SocialWork

Humanities

Economics & Business


01 039 l.jpg
01-039 life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

www.founders.net

To download this presentation, go to:

Slides - Slide Shows


References l.jpg
References life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

References

  • From Early Child Development to Human Development. Editor: Mary Eming Young, World Bank, Washington, 2000.

  • Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. Joseph LeDoux, Viking Penguin, New York, 2003.

  • TheEnd of Stress As We Know It. Bruce McEwen, Joseph Henry Press, Washington, 2002.

  • Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations. Editors: Daniel P. Keating, Clyde Hertzman, The Guilford Press, New York, 1999.

  • From Neurons to Neighborhoods. The Science of Early Child Development. Editors: Jack P. Shonkoff and Deborah A. Phillips, National Academy Press, Washington, 2000.

  • Early Years Study, Final Report Reversing the Real Brain Drain. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, Publications Ontario, Toronto,1999.


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  • 7. Vulnerable Children life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life: . Editor: J. Douglas Willms, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, 2002.

  • 8. Readiness to Learn at School. Magdalena Janus and Dan Offord, In: Isuma (Canadian Journal of Policy Research) Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000.

  • 9. Why are some people healthy and others not? Editors: Robert G. Evans et al, Aldine De Gruyter, New York, 1994.

  • The Early Years Study Three Years Later. Hon. Margaret Norrie McCain and J. Fraser Mustard, The Founders’ Network, 2002.

  • Choice for parents, the best start for children: a ten year strategy for childcare. Dept. for Education and Skills, HM Treasury. www.hm-treasury.gov.uk. 2004.

  • 12. Behaviour (Affect), Literacy, and Early Child Development. J. Fraser Mustard. Paper prepared for the 5th International Encounter of Early Childhood. Monterrey, Mexico. 2005.


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13. Early Child Development and Experience-based Brain Development: Implications for the Continuing Experiments in Civilization. J. Fraser Mustard. World Bank. Washington. (in press)

14. What the EDI Is (Not). Hillel Goelman and Clyde Hertzman. 2004. www.earlylearning.ubc.ca

15. The Balance Within. Esther Sternberg. W.H. Freeman. New York. 2000.

16. Healthier Societies: From Analysis to Action. Jody Heymann, Clyde Hertzman, Morris Barer and Robert Evans, Eds. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.

17. ECD and Experience-based Brain Development: The Scientific Underpinnings of the Importance of Early Child Development in a Globalized World. J. Fraser Mustard. Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006. http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200602mustard.htm

18. Success by Ten.Jens Ludwig and Isabel Sawhill. Washington: Brookings Institution. 2006.


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