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Enzymes: Protein Catalysts. Increase rates of reaction, but not consumed. Enable reactions to occur under mild conditions: e.g. temperature, pH. High reaction specificity: no side products. Activity of enzymes can be regulated. Substrate Availability of enzyme (expression, localization)

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enzymes protein catalysts
Enzymes: Protein Catalysts
  • Increase rates of reaction, but not consumed.
  • Enable reactions to occur under mild conditions: e.g. temperature, pH.
  • High reaction specificity: no side products.
  • Activity of enzymes can be regulated.
    • Substrate
    • Availability of enzyme (expression, localization)
    • Reversible covalent modification
    • Allosteric control (other proteins or co-factors)
enzyme cofactors
Enzyme Cofactors
  • Simple Enzymes: only protein chain(s)
  • Complex Enzymes: require additional molecules (co-factors) for functioning
    • Co-enzyme: non-covalently bound
    • Prosthetic Group: covalently bound to protein

Prosthetic groups/co-enzymes usually VITAMINS!

Vitamin deficiency diseases: malfunction of enzymes

enzyme classes reactions
Enzyme Classes/Reactions
  • Oxidoreductases. Act on many chemical groupings to add or remove hydrogen atoms.
  • Transferases. Transfer functional groups between donor and acceptor molecules (e.g. kinases that transfer phosphate from ATP to other molecules).
  • Hydrolases. Add water across a bond, hydrolyzing it.
  • Lyases. Add H2O, NH2, or CO2 across double bonds, or remove these elements to produce double bonds.
  • Isomerases. Carry out stereochemical, geometric and other types of isomerization.
  • Ligases. Catalyze reactions in which two chemical groups are joined (ligated) with the use of energy from ATP.
catalytic mechanisms
Catalytic Mechanisms
  • Bond Strain: Strains substrate bonds, which facilitates attaining the transition state.
  • Proximity and Orientation: Binding brings molecules into proximity and helps to properly orients reactive groups.
  • Acid/Base Catalysis: Required catalytic proton donors (acids) or acceptors (bases) are supplied by catalyst.
  • Covalent Catalysis: The reaction is facilitated by formation of a covalent intermediate between the enzyme (or coenzyme) and the substrate.
catalytic mechanisms cont
Catalytic Mechanisms (cont.)
  • Metal Ions (metalloenzymes): Orients substrates + stabilizes charge in the transition state + supplies or captures electrons during the course of the reaction.
  • Electrostatic: Exclusion of solvent changes environment to facilitate reactions + stabilization of charge in the transition state.
  • Preferential Binding of the Transition State: Binding of the transition state is PREFERRED over the reactants and products, greatly stabilizing this species at the critical moment it is formed.
enzymes protein catalysts1
Enzymes: Protein Catalysts
  • Catalysts: increase rate of reaction, but not consumed.
  • Enzymes bind substrates to increase the rate of a biochemical reaction that converts the substrate (reactant) into a desired product.
  • Reactions occur once sufficient energy has been supplied to overcome the energy barrier that prevents the reaction from occurring spontaneously.
  • Each reaction has a transition state where the substrate is in an unstable, short-lived chemical/structural state.

A-H + B  [ AHB ]  A + H-B

reaction coordinate diagrams
Reaction Coordinate Diagrams
  • The progress of the reaction can be viewed in terms of the energy of the system: reaction coordinate. [Fig. 11-3]
  • The transition state is the highest point on the reaction coordinate diagram.
  • The height of the energy barrier is the Free Energy of Activation and is symbolized by DG‡.
  • Reactions can go forward and backward. The height of the energy barrier to go backwards may be higher than to go forward, because the product may be more stable than the substrate. The difference in energy between substrate and product is the Free Energy of Reaction.
multi step reactions
Multi-Step Reactions
  • A reaction may have more than one step: S  I  P.
  • Two step reaction have two transition states. [Fig. 11-4]
  • If the energy barrier is higher for one step than the other, than the rate of this step will be slower.
  • In multi-step reactions, the step with the highest transition state free energy (the highest point on the reaction coordinate diagram) is the Rate Determining Stepof the reaction.
  • The overall rate of the reaction, kinetics, can only be as fast as the slowest step.
the catalytic effect of enzymes
The Catalytic Effect of Enzymes
  • Enzymes act by lowering the free energy of the transition state, thereby reducing the free energy of activation (DG‡). [Fig. 11-5]
  • The catalytic efficiency (DDG‡cat) is the difference in DG‡ for the catalyzed reaction versus the uncatalyzed reaction.
  • The catalytic efficiency can be viewed in terms of the kinetic parameters: rate enhancement for the reaction.
  • Enzymes allow huge enhancements of rates, in many cases, enabling reactions to occur that would almost never occur spontaneously because DG‡ is so high.
enzymes affect rates not outcome
Enzymes Affect Rates, Not Outcome
  • The lowering of the free energy barrier and increase in rate is equal for the forward and the reverse reactions.
  • Ultimately, the reaction will settle to equilibrium. The time required to come to equilibrium depends on the rates of the forward and reverse reactions. Enzymes facilitate this process.
  • Enzymes increase the kinetic parameter velocity with which products are produced from reactants. This is equally true for the forward and reverse reactions.
  • At equilibrium, the preference for substrate versus product is determined by the difference in energy between substrate and product- NOT BY THE RATES.
simple kinetics
Simple Kinetics

S ------> P

Reaction Velocity: the instantaneous rate (k) at which product is produced (or substrate disappears) mulitplied by the amount of substrate present: v = k[S]

The rate of production of product = rate of consumption of substrate.

The rate constant for the forward reaction is defined as kf or k+1 and for the reverse reaction as kr or k-1:

The velocity of the forward reaction is: vforward = k+1[S]

The velocity of the reverse reaction is: vreverse = k-1[P]

kinetics at equilibrium
Kinetics at Equilibrium

At equilibrium, the velocity of the forward reaction is equal to the reverse reaction k+1[S] = k-1[P], so there is no overall change in the distribution of S and P.

An equilibrium constant of the reaction can be defined:

Keq = [P]/[S] = k+1/k-1

This equation demonstrates that at equilibrium, the concentration of S and P reflects the relative stability (free energy difference) between S and P.