Seedless Vascular Plants - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

seedless vascular plants n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Seedless Vascular Plants PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Seedless Vascular Plants

play fullscreen
1 / 57
Seedless Vascular Plants
590 Views
Download Presentation
umed
Download Presentation

Seedless Vascular Plants

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Seedless Vascular Plants

  2. Lycopodiophyta: Lycophytes Pteridophyta: Ferns 4 orders of true ferns + Psilotales: Whisk ferns Equisetales: Horsetails

  3. Characteristics of the Seedless Vascular Plants • Vascular tissues (protostele, siphenostele, few have eustele) • Well developed cuticle • Lignin & cellulose in secondary wall • Protected Sporangia • In most, sporangia are aggregated into strobili • Have dominant sporophytes • Require water for fertilization

  4. Leaves in the Seedless V. P. • Enations: scale-like outgrowth devoid of vascular tissues • Microphylls: evolved from enations, with a single vein • Megaphylls: evolved as modified branches, have branched veins

  5. Phylum Lycopodiophyta: Lycophytes • Mostly tropical • Consist of 3 living orders each with a single family • All living genera are herbs with microphylls

  6. Club Mosses: F. Lycopodiaceae • Example: The genus Lycopodium* • All living genera, except two, are classified in this family • Seven genera are represented in U.S. & Canada but most species are tropical & epiphytes • Roots & stems are protostelic • Homosporous, sporangia are in axils of fertile leaves (sporophylls) • In Lycopodium, sporophylls are grouped into strobili *

  7. Lycopodium obscurum Lycopodiella inundata Locopods

  8. Lycopodium digitatum

  9. An Epiphytic Club Moss

  10. Spike Mosses: F. Selaginellaceae • One genus Sellaginella (700 species)* • Tropical, many found in moist habitats, few are desert plants • Sporophylls arranged in strobili (Heterosporous)* • Has micro- & megasporophylls

  11. Selaginella denticulata

  12. http://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/selaginella_underwoodii.htmlhttp://www.wnmu.edu/academic/nspages2/gilaflora/selaginella_underwoodii.html Sporangia (Selaginella underwoodii)

  13. Selaginellaarbuscula http://zipcodezoo.com/photographers/Charles%20H.%20Lamoureux.asp

  14. Selaginella apoda Selaginella involvens Selaginella

  15. Selaginella spp

  16. Resurrection Plant (Selaginella lepidophylla) Desert plant: Found in TX, NM, and Mexico

  17. Quillworts: F. Isoetaceae • One genus Isoetes* • They are aquatic, or found in seasonally flooded habitats • Plants look like grasses, with underground stem (corm) • All leaves are potential sporophylls • Heterosporous, lower leaves are megasporophylls, upper microsporophylls

  18. Quillworts: Microsporangia & Microspores

  19. Quillworts: Megasporangia & Megaspores

  20. Quillworts: Habitat

  21. Pteridophyta:Psilotales Whisk Ferns • Consist of one family & two genera • They are the simplest vascular plants • Represent an early lineage related to living ferns

  22. Wisk Fern: Genus Psilotum* • Tropical and subtropical in distribution (S. States) • Protostelic • Lacks roots, has rhizomes & rhizoids • Leaves are represented by enations • Dominated sporophyte, homosporous • Gametophyte is heterotrophic, either symbiotic or parasitic on soil fungi

  23. Psilotum Sporophyte Sporophyte

  24. Psilotum nudum

  25. Sporangia Psilotumnudum

  26. Sporangia http://www.science.siu.edu/landplants/Psilophyta/psilophyta.html Wisk Fern: Genus Tmesipteris • Confined to South Pacific • Grows as an epiphyte on tree ferns & other plants • Has microphylls

  27. Pteridophyta: EquisetalesHorsetails • Represented by 1 genus, Equisetum (horsetails)* • It is the oldest survivor of plants • Widespread in moist habitats and edge of forests • Has jointed stem (nodes) & rough texture • Has microphylls • Homosporous, sporangia are clustered into strobili

  28. Strobilus Branches Leaves Equisetum arvense

  29. Equisetum arvense

  30. Equisetum hyemale

  31. Phylum Pteridophyta: True ferns: • The largest group of living seedless vascular plants (11,000 spp) • They are found in a variety of habitats • 3/4 are tropical • 1/3 of tropical ferns grows as epiphytes • 1/4 inhabits temperate regions & desert

  32. Polystichum acrostichoides

  33. Dryopteris carthusiana(mature sporangia)

  34. Fern: Morphology • Most ferns of temperate region produce annual leaves from subterranean rhizomes • Leaves are megaphylls (fronds), constitute major part of the sporophyte • Ferns are the only seedless vascular plants with megaphylls • Most ferns are homosporous, water ferns are heterosporous

  35. Pinnae (leaflet) Rachis (extension of petiole Petiole: leaf stalk Fern Morphology Frond: compound leaf of ferns

  36. Sorus Fern Spores

  37. Archegonia Antheridia Rhizoid Fern Gametophyte

  38. Text Pg. 567 Fern Life Cycle

  39. Diversity of Ferns

  40. Pteridium aquilinum (Common Brake)

  41. Athyrium filix-femina var. angustum (Lady Fern)

  42. Dryopteris intermedia (Common Wood Fern)

  43. Matteuccia struthiopteris (Ostrich Fern)

  44. Onoclea sensibilis (Sensitive Fern)

  45. Water Ferns • Include two orders: Marsileales & Salviniales • Constitute the only living heterosporous ferns • Marsiliales – Marsilea • Salviniales – Salvinia & Azolla

  46. Marsilea spp. Resembles a four-leaf clover. Grow on mud or submerged with floating leaves

  47. Marsilea spp Sporocarp(at base of plants)