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AP Psychology Exam Prep. About the test. 100 multiple choice questions/ 70 minutes Will you be punished for guessing? NO 2 Free Response questions/ 50 minutes Pick out key words- compare, describe, explain.. Make notes on the test sheet-definitions, examples….

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about the test
About the test
  • 100 multiple choice questions/ 70 minutes
  • Will you be punished for guessing?
    • NO
  • 2 Free Response questions/ 50 minutes
    • Pick out key words- compare, describe, explain..
    • Make notes on the test sheet-definitions, examples….
    • Make sure it applies to the case given!!!
multiple choice
Multiple Choice
  • After you read the question:
    • What is it asking
    • What do you know about the concept/person/theory
    • What do each of the choices mean
    • What school of thought is it from
  • How do you convert incoming stimuli into neural impulses?
    • Transduction: the process of changing physical stimuli into neural energy
  • Two theories of color
    • Opponent-process:
    • Triarchic Theory:

Pupil: regulates amount of light sent to retina

Cornea: clear part covers iris and pupil; lets light in to see

Iris: colored part of eye; regulates pupil

Lens: behind cornea; focuses light into retina

Retina: lines the eye; converts stimuli to signals to be sent to optic nerve

Rods-black and white

Cones- colored

hearing audition
Hearing- Audition

Ear: impacts hearing and balance

Vestibulocochlearnerve: carries the nerve impulses to be able to hear and balance to the brain

Terms: amplitude, frequency,

Theories of hearing:

Place Theory: location of greatest vibration

Frequency Theory: frequency in which amount of hair cell in the cochlea fire

parts of the ear
Parts of the Ear

Cochlea- inner ear contains fluid that vibrates

Hammer/anvil/stirrup: small bones relay vibrations of eardrum to inner ear

Basil membrane: in the cochlea contains sense receptors for sound

hearing loss
Hearing loss
  • Conductive hearing loss:
    • When vibrations to inner ear are blocked; earwax build up, ear infections
  • sensorineural hearing loss: caused from damage to vestibulocochlear nerve; head injury, birth defects, high blood pressure, stroke
  • Presbycusis- old age
  • Tinnitus- ringing in the ear
other senses
Other senses

Touch- gate control theory

Taste- gustation

Smell- olfaction; only one directly connect to brain

  • Top-Down Processing: we perceive by filling in gaps with what we know
  • Bottom-up Processing: use sensory information to process data.
  • Monocular cues: visual cues-one eye
    • Interposition-one objct partially blocks another
    • Linear perspective- base distance on things coming together—lines
  • Binocular cues: requires both eyes
    • Retinal disparity- difference between 2 objects
    • Convergence- both eyes focus same thing
    • Stereoscopic vision- 3d
  • Sleep Cycle
    • Circadian rhythm: awake and sleep cycle
    • REM: rapid eye movement; dreams occur
    • Sleep stages: from slowed breathing, lower blood pressure, near body paralysis
  • Sleep Disorders
    • Insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea
  • Hypnosis

Psychoactive drugs are either agonist or antagonists

Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates(anesthesia)

Stimulants: caffeine, cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines

Opiates: morphine, heroin, codeine

Hallucinogens: LSD, marijuana

social thinking
Social Thinking
  • Attribution Theory
    • tendency to give an explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
social thinking1
Social Thinking
  • Fundamental Attribution Error
    • tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
social thinking some concepts
Social Thinking – Some Concepts
    • Our Attitudes often direct our behavior but sometimes behavior shapes our attitudes
  • Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
    • tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
  • “Doing Becomes Believing”
social influence
Social Influence
  • Normative Social Influence
    • influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
  • Leads to……Conformity
    • adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
social influence concepts
Social Influence - concepts
  • Informational Social Influence
    • influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality
  • …Leads To Norms
    • an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
    • describes “proper” behavior
social influence1




Standard lines

Comparison lines

Social Influence

click above for a clip!

Asch Conformity Experiment


Stanley Milgram: People conform, but will they simply obey others?

65% of Milgram’s “teachers” did!

social influence somebody s helping me
Social Influence:somebody’s helping me…
  • Social Loafing
    • tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
  • The loss of self awareness and self restrain occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
social relations













to help

1 2 3 4

Number of others

presumed available to help

Social Relations
  • Bystander Effect
    • tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social relations why do we treat each other differently
Social Relations – why do we treat each other differently?
  • Prejudice
    • an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members
    • involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
  • Stereotype
    • a generalized (often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
social relations why prejudice social bias
Social Relations – why prejudice & social bias?
  • Ingroup Bias
    • tendency to favor one’s own group
  • Scapegoat Theory
    • theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
  • Just-World Phenomenon
    • tendency of people to believe the world is just
    • people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Preconceived ideas can affect the way someone acts towards another person.
  • Our expectations of behavior can be influenced as well. This is called the self-fulfilling prophecy.
social relations1
Social Relations
  • Aggression
    • any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
  • Frustration-Aggression Principle
    • principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression
to help or not to help
To Help or Not to Help…

The Bystander Effect

  • Inaction or failure to assume responsibility due to the mere presence of others.
social relations what attracts us to others
Social Relations- What attracts us to others?
  • Proximity
    • mere exposure effect- repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
  • Physical Attractiveness
    • youthfulness may be associated with health and fertility
  • Similarity
    • friends share common attitudes, beliefs, interests
social relations2
Social Relations
  • Passionate Love
    • an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another
    • usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
  • Companionate Love
    • deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
the key to lasting and satisfying relationships
The key to lasting and satisfying relationships
  • Equity
    • a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
  • Self-disclosure
    • revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  • Altruism
    • unselfish regard for the welfare of others