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Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center Emerging Diseases and Disease Management Update 2007 ANR Update Patty Scharko, DVM, PowerPoint Presentation
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Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center Emerging Diseases and Disease Management Update 2007 ANR Update Patty Scharko, DVM, MPH, DACVPM Extension Ruminant Veterinarian. EHD Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease of White Tail Deer. http://fw.ky.gov/gifs/ehdcounties.gif. EHD Details.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center

  • Emerging Diseases and Disease Management Update
  • 2007 ANR Update
  • Patty Scharko, DVM, MPH, DACVPM
  • Extension Ruminant Veterinarian
ehd epizootic hemorrhagic disease of white tail deer
EHD Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease of White Tail Deer

http://fw.ky.gov/gifs/ehdcounties.gif

ehd details
EHD Details

EHD does not affect humans, nor impact the safety of consumed deer

EHD is caused by the bite of an infected midge and once there has been a hard freeze, the insects die off for the winter, eliminating new cases of EHD

Most significant disease of white-tailed deer in the United States

Virus identified and described in 1955 in NJ

Enzootic to Southeastern United States

Outbreaks often associated with drought

Can result in high deer mortality in some areas

ehd symptoms in deer
EHD Symptoms in Deer

Symptoms vary depending on virulence of the virus and resistance of the deer

Animals may appear feverish

Have pronounced swelling of head, neck, tongue, and eyelids

May have respiratory distress

Internal hemorrhaging

Highly virulent strains may cause death in 1-3 days

Carcasses often recovered near water

ehd transmission in deer
EHD Transmission in Deer

The EHD virus does not appear to be transmissible to humans

The virus deteriorates in <24 hours after death and cannot be spread from dead deer carcasses

“The virus does not appear to be a threat to livestock”

There appears to be no risk associated with direct exposure to the virus or in consuming a deer that has been infected with the virus

However, never kill or eat a sick deer

Use rubber gloves to field dress deer

slide6

First signs 7 to 8 days after infection

    • Fever (106-107)
    • In 24 hrs, salivation & frothing
    • Lesions in mouth

http://ec.europa.eu/food/committees/regulatory/scfcah/animal_health/bluetongue_scofcah_belgium.pdf

slide7

Reluctance to move

http://ec.europa.eu/food/committees/regulatory/scfcah/animal_health/bluetongue_scofcah_belgium.pdf

slide8

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease

Prior exposure to a related Orbivirus can produce clinical cases in cattle.

EHD reported in at least 14 counties in 2003.

usda aphis vs foreign animal disease investigation
USDA/APHIS/VS Foreign Animal Disease Investigation
  • Differential diagnoses include:
  • Plant photosensitization
  • Foot-and-mouth disease
  • Vesicular stomatitis
  • Bovine virus diarrhea
  • Malignant catarrhal fever
  • Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
  • Parainfluenza-3
  • Contagious ecthyma (orf/soremouth)
  • Actinobacillosis
future complications
Future Complications

In some instances severe breaks in the hooves occur 40 to 60 days after infection and are usually followed by foot rot

future complications 1
Future Complications1

Severe breaks in the hooves may occur 40 to 60 days after infection and are usually followed by foot rot

Bulls may become temporarily sterile following acute infections

Congenital defects

Most susceptible period for fetal infections occurs between 60 - 140 days gestation

“Dummy” calves

Fetal death

1 Reported on Bluetongue cattle cases

slide16

Flies, Deer, Sheep

BVD

Acute Infection

Subclinical

Acute death

Fever

Diarrhea

Transient Infection

Infertility

Bleeding disorders

Immunosuppression

Respiratory disease

Persistent testicular infections

Fetal Infection

Transient in utero infection

Abortion

Birth defects

Congenital infection

Persistent Infection

Acute death

Poor performance

Normal appearance

Mucosal disease

Immunosuppression

slide17

Vaccinate cows & heifers prior to breeding

Bull BSE’s

Breeding Season

Calving Season

March: castrate, dehorn, and vaccinate calves

May: wean calves & pregnancy test cows

Intense

Biosecurity

July: strategic summer deworming

Fall Calving Herd

January

October

April

July

Slides courtesy of M. Daniel Givens, DVM, PhD,

Auburn University

slide18

Vaccinate cows & heifers prior to breeding

Bull BSE’s

Calving Season

May: castrate, dehorn, and blackleg vaccinate calves

June/July: strategic summer deworming

September/October: wean calves & pregnancy test cows

Intense

Biosecurity

Late fall: lice control

Spring Calving Herd

May

Breeding Season

August

February

November

slide19

Calf-Heifer Vaccination Program

Proper timing

+/- Possible timing- Determine with your veterinarian what is best for your farm.

? Questionable vaccine effectiveness

slide20

Cow-Bull Vaccination Program

Proper timing

+/- Possible timing- Determine with your veterinarian what is best for your farm.

? Questionable vaccine effectiveness

classes of dewormers goats sheep
Classes of DewormersGoats/ Sheep

Imidazole/

Pyrimidine

Macrolide

Benzimidazole

Drug Class

Ivomec

Dectomax

Eprinex

Cydectin**

Safeguard/

Panacur

Synathic/

Benzelmin

Valbazen*

Levasole/

Tramisol

Rumatel

StrongidT

Trade Names

*Do not use in first trimester pregnancy

** Use sparingly to maintain efficacy

anaplasmosis
Anaplasmosis
  • Definition
    • Infectious, transmissible rickettsial disease of ruminants characterized by progressive anemia
  • Cause
    • Anaplasma marginale
  • Economic losses
    • Cattle deaths
    • Trade barrier issues with Canada
anaplasmosis1
Anaplasmosis
  • Source of Infection
    • Cattle
    • Wild ruminants- ?white tail deer
  • Transmission
    • Ticks, biting insects- horsefly, horn flies?
    • Blood contaminated instruments- dehorning, castration, contaminated needles, implant needles
  • Pathogenesis- occurs when 1% of red blood cells are infected
    • Destruction of RBC’s by spleen
anaplasmosis2
Anaplasmosis
  • Clinical Signs

Incubation period of 4-6 weeks

Dependent upon age

      • Often fatal in cattle greater than two years
    • Fever, lethargy, constipation, dry muzzle
    • Mucus membranes: pale  yellow
    • Staggering, collapse, sudden death
    • Survivors are carriers
anaplasomsis
Anaplasomsis
  • Persists in vectors (ticks) & inapparent carriers
  • Control and Prevention
    • Treat herd- long acting oxytetracycline
    • Insect control:
      • ear tags
      • insecticidal sprays/dips
anaplasomsis1
Anaplasomsis
  • Control and Prevention
    • Injectable oxytetracycline
      • OIE recommends 10 mg/lb daily for 5 days (may not be effective with Iowa St. Univ. research)
      • Two doses at 13.6 mg/lb 5 days apart did NOT work (ISU) to eliminate carrier status
      • Two doses 9mg/lb 7 days apart (Canadian restricted feeder cattle program) NOT successful
    • Oral consumption of chlortetracycline for 120CONTINUOUS days at 0.5 mg/lb body weight
current label claims
Current Label Claims

"Beef Cattle (over 700 lb): Control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline. - 0.5 mg/lb Chlortetracycline body wt/day.

Beef and Non-Lactating Dairy Cattle (over 700 lb): Control of active infection of anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale susceptible to chlortetracycline when delivered in a free-choice feed. Free-choice feed must be manufactured under a feed mill license utilizing an FDA approved formulation. - 0.5 to 2.0 mg/lb Chlortetracycline body wt/day."

anaplasomsis2
Anaplasomsis
  • Control and Prevention
    • Test for carriers with C-ELISA test on blood 4 to 6 months after treatment/ exposure
    • Vaccination
      • No commercially approved vaccine available
      • Experimental “Anaplasmosis Vaccine” in LA available with State Veterinarian’s permission