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Revolution Model. 3. Breaking Point – An event or a series of events that serve as final straw and necessitate change . 6. Counter revolution- moving closer to original balance. 4. Revolution. 5 . Aftermath Revolution Revolutionaries establish system that goes beyond even original balance.

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slide1

Revolution Model

3. Breaking Point – An event or a series of events that serve as final straw and necessitate change

6. Counter revolution- moving closer to original balance

4. Revolution

5. Aftermath Revolution

Revolutionaries establish system that goes beyond even original balance

2. Strain on the system

Soaring then crashing

Class struggle

Unhappy intellectuals

Incompetent Government

Gutless leaders

Fiscal Irresponsibility

Misuse of military

Reduction of Rights

1. Balance between Authority and Liberty

Purposes of Government are being met and people are satisfied

slide2

The French Revolution

1.

1700’s France the most advance country in Europe.

Center of the Enlightenment

French culture was envied

Old regime and the 3 estates

The Privileged Estates

1st (clergy anti- enlightenment)- less then 1% of population and 2% of income paid in taxes, owned 10% of land

2nd (rich nobles, with high offices in Government, disagreed with enlightenment)- 2% of population, 0% of income paid in taxes, 20% of land

3rd Estate- 98 % of population 50% of income paid in taxes, no power in government

Bourgeoisie- merchants and artisans. Many were as wealthy as the nobles but they high taxes and had no say.

City Workers- paid low wages and were frequently out of work.

Peasants- 80 % of the 26 million French. Spent over half of their income on tax and paying nobles and the church.

slide3

The French Revoltion

  • 2. Strain on the system
  • Taxes on the 3rd estate
  • - Enlightenment ideas spread in the 3rd Estate. Equality, Liberty, Democracy
  • - Inspired by Voltaire, Rousseau, and the American Revolution
  • - High Taxes, poor crop production, high prices, starvation
  • - High debt (debt doubled under Louis XVI)
  • - Extravagant spending (Marie Antoinette) Madame Deficit
  • - Louis the XVI was a weak leader who avoided problems and would rather engage in leisure
  • - Attempted to tax second estate and was forced to call a meeting of the Estates General
  • - 3rd Estate insisted that each member has a vote. King sided with the nobles eliminating 3rd estate power
  • - Formation of the National Assembly- Created by 3rd Estate to make laws in the name of the French People.
  • - The Tennis Court Oath- pledge to create a new constitution
slide4

The French Revolution

3. Breaking Point – The Storming of the Bastille.

slide5

The French Revolution

4. Revolution

The Great Fear- Summer /Fall 1789- Peasants revolted against nobles when they feared that the nobles hired outlaws to terrorize the peasants

Bread Riots- October 1789

Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette forced to leave Versailles and live in Paris.

August 4th 1789- Nobles and Clergy joined- removed privileges for the 1st and 2nd estates

Declaration of the Rights of Man- 8/27/89

“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

slide6

The French Revolution

Aftermath of Peasant uprisings

1790- church lost its property and political independence.

Priest were to be elected, paid as state officials, and taxed

The Assembly did not want to tax the Bourgeoisie.

This angered the Peasants who supported their church.

Louis and his family tried to escape France- captured and returned to Paris.

1791

Limited Monarchy- still had executive power but not legislative (assemblymen)

Louis agreed to hand over power to the Legislative Assembly

Legislative Assembly split- radicals, moderates, conservatives

Extremes- Emigres- wanted to restore the old regime

Sans-culottes- Parisian wage earners who wanted more of a voice.

The Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria 1792 because the proposed that Louis be put back on the throne.

slide7

The French Revolution

Radical and Extreme Measures

War with Austria and Prussia

Ignoring Prussian threats, 20,000 Parisians invaded the Royal palace, killed 900 Swiss soldiers and imprisoned Louis XVI and his family.

Parisians feared that the Royalist prisoners would take over the city so in September 1792- they murdered 1,000’s of prisoners. (Sept. Massacres)

The Leg. Assembly broke up out of fear from radicals- 1791 Constitution and King deposed.

New Gov’t – the National Convention.

The radical group called the Jacobin wanted to remove the king and establish a republic.

Jean Paul Marat was one of the radical leaders

National Convention – abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.

Louis XVI found guilty of treason and on 1/23/93 he was beheaded.

slide8

The French Revolution

Radical and Extreme Measures

The National Convention- drafted over 300,000 French citizens into the Army. The French Army now had over 800,000 soldiers.

Maximilien Robespierre assumes control and attempted to build a “republic of virtue”

Attempted to wipe out France’s past monarchy and nobility including names

The entire culture had to change.

Changed the Calendar and removed Sunday from the week.

Outlawed religion and closed churches.

Established the Committee of Public Safety- tried and executed “enemies of the State” 3,000 in Paris and up to 40,000 (mostly peasants and poor- the old 3rd estate)

Robespierre and the Reign of Terror.

Marie Antoinette was beheaded

Leaders of the Jacobins were executed July 28th, 1794- Robespierre was beheaded

slide9

The French Revolution

1795 Constitution.

Created by Moderates

Power in the hands of the upper-middle class.

2 house legislature and 5 man executive (Directory)

The 5 men were moderates.

The Directory named Napoleon Bonaparte the commander of the French Military.

slide10

The French Revolution

By 1799, Napoleon will become stage a coup d’etat and become a dictator.

slide11

The American Revolution

1. Balance between Authority and Liberty

1. Colonist were content with England

2nd highest standard of living

Semi-independent

slide12

The American Revolution

2. Strain on the system

French and Indian War

No representation

Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Sons of Liberty

Navigational Acts strictly enforced

Tea Act, Sugar Act, Stamp Act

British Debt on the backs of Americans

Quartering Soldiers

Boston Massacre

Troops occupied Boston

First Continental Congress

slide13

The American Revolution

3. Breaking Point

Lexington and Concord

slide14

The American Revolution

4. Revolution

Declaration of Independence

5. The Aftermath

Articles of Confederation gave very little power to a central government.

Strong States and a weak national government led to conflict and some local rebellions.

slide15

The American Revolution

Counter revolution-

1787- The Constitutional Convention

Ratification of the Constitution

1789- The Bill of Rights

Many consider this a counter revolution of a coup

slide16

Revolution Model

3. Breaking Point – An event or a series of events that serve as final straw and necessitate change

6. Counter revolution- moving closer to original balance

4. Revolution

5. Aftermath Revolution

Revolutionaries establish system that goes beyond even original balance

2. Strain on the system

Soaring then crashing

Class struggle

Unhappy intellectuals

Incompetent Government

Gutless leaders

Fiscal Irresponsibility

Misuse of military

Reduction of Rights

1. Balance between Authority and Liberty

Purposes of Government are being met and people are satisfied